I would seriously just read util for dehumanization
Cards New legislation on Human Trafficking nowShannon 6/7 [brad, News Tribune Staff Writer, â€œHuman-trafficking law takes effectâ€, http://www.thenewstribune.com/2012/06/07/2173067/human-trafficking-law-takes-effect.html, 2012]
A slew of new laws designed to counter human-trafficking took effect Thursday in Washington, including penalties as high as $10,000 for promoting prostitution and $5,000 for paying customers. They were among the roughly 220 laws added to the books this week after their adoption by lawmakers earlier this year. A federal judge has put the sex-trafficking legislationâ€™s controversial centerpiece â€“ targeting online want ads for sexual services â€“ in limbo. But other pieces taking effect give hope to activists and bill sponsors that a dent can be made in the human-trafficking business. Among them is a law letting authorities seize and obtain a forfeiture of property used by offenders to further their sex-trafficking crimes, including automobiles. Another lets people convicted of prostitution clear their names if they can prove they were forced into it by sex-traffickers.
Status quo solvesAbramowitz 3/8/13 [David, Director of The Hillâ€™s Congress Blog, â€œPassage Of Human Trafficking Bill Sends Clear Message,â€ http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/foreign-policy/287087-passage-of-human-trafficing-bill-sends-clear-message]
Congressâ€™ reauthorization of the TVPA re-asserts U.S. leadership in the effort to eradicate modern-day slavery at home and around the world. The legislation bolsters the fight against human trafficking in four significant ways: It renews key federal anti-trafficking programs for the next four years; provides for new partnerships with cooperating countries to protect children and prevent trafficking; adds new protections for survivors of modern slavery; and provides prosecutors with new tools to go after the traffickers who exploit others. One hundred and fifty years after President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation freeing slaves during the civil war, itâ€™s astonishing that we still face the need to fight slavery. But the fact is that millions of men, women and children are subject to modern slavery each year, including in the United States, and human trafficking is the worldâ€™s second largest criminal enterprise, after drug trafficking. Slavery today looks much different than it did 150 years ago. Illegal everywhere, it is more often underground and masked so well that it is difficult to recognize. But the reality is that construction workers, housekeepers, farm workers and others in low-paying industries are brought to the United States by labor brokers who promised a job, but enslaved them instead. Traffickers put those individuals into debt bondage, seize travel documents, threaten retribution by law enforcement or immigration authorities, and promise violence against family members if they try to leave. Sex traffickers also target the vulnerable, using violence, threats and other coercive means to keep victims involved in sex slavery. Sex trafficking can be found in most major U.S. metropolitan areas and along major interstates at truck stops, on city streets, or in escort services, strip clubs, fake massage businesses and other venues. Hopefully, signing the reauthorization of the TVPA into law is just the first of many second term efforts by President Obama to assert U.S. leadership and establish his legacy as a leader in the fight to end modern slavery. In September, President Obama pledged his commitment to renewing the TVPA during a highly public speech at the Clinton Global Initiative; some say it was the longest speech on slavery by a U.S. president since the Emancipation Proclamation. The president also announced an executive order to strengthen U.S. efforts to stop human trafficking in government contracting, pledged to provide relevant officials and agencies with training and guidance programs on human trafficking, and promised to expand resources and services for trafficking survivors.
Aff focuses on the wrong aspects of trafficking â€“ canâ€™t solve the unintended consequences of legal policyChristoffersen 09 Unintended Consequences: Understanding Human Trafficking in the United States Lyndsey Christoffersen University of California, Irvine http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=humtraffconf
The United States also acknowledges that immigration policy impacts trafficking throughout the world. â€œDespite these countriesâ€™ reliance on foreign labor, stringent immigration provisions combined with a bias against foreign workers often create a structure conducive to trafficking in personsâ€ (TIP, 2008, 31). While this argument is beginning made about countries in the Middle East, it should also be applied to the United States. The U.S. is not acknowledging that its strict borders are aiding human traffickers. This denial is the political part of human trafficking. Governments focus on the evil individuals involved in the crime so that they do not have to acknowledge the unintended consequences of their policies. â€œReferences to the abuses conducted by individual actors â€“ brutal traffickers and exploitative employers â€“ obscures the importance of formal citizenship/legal status, and the role of the state in constructing vulnerability through denial of legal statusâ€ (Anderson & Andrijasevic, 2008, 144). Second, U.S. immigration policy has few protections for migrants. â€œImmigration controls produce groups of people that are â€˜deportableâ€™ and hence particularly vulnerable to abuseâ€(Anderson & Andrijasevic, 2008, 144). The focus on trafficking has allowed both the government and citizens to ignore abuse of migrants. While migrants have some legal recourse for abuse, most do not attempt it for fear of deportation (Human Rights Watch, 2007). Additionally, trafficking victims must prove that they were subjected to a severe form of trafficking (TVPA, 2000). Basically, until and unless a migrant is trafficked, they are not going to receive any significant help. Not only is this abuse bad by itself, it creates vulnerability to trafficking. There is little legal recourse for exploited migrants, so they are forced into situations where they are more likely to be trafficked.
Immigration Turns traffickingCicero-DomÃnguez, graduate of the MatÃas Romero Institute for Diplomatic Studies in Mexico City, 05 Salvador A. Cicero-DomÃnguez, graduate of the MatÃas Romero Institute for Diplomatic Studies in Mexico City and holds a Juris Doctor from The Ohio State University Moritz College of Law. He currently serves as Director of the American Bar Association/ American Bar Foundationâ€™s Project to Combat Trafficking in Persons in Ecuador, 12-05, [â€œAssessing the U.S.-Mexico Fight against Human Trafficking and Smuggling: Unintended Results of U.S. Immigration Policy,â€ 4 Nw. U. J. Int'l Hum. Rts. 303 at http://www.law.northwestern.edu/journals/jihr/v4/n2/2] E. Liu
Since 1996, when Congress implemented the aforementioned immigration laws, more than 500,000 people have been rounded up and deported to more than 160 countries around the world.89 Under these laws, every non-citizen sentenced to a year or more in prison is subject to deportation, even if the sentence is suspended; deportable crimes can be anything from murder to petty theft. Furthermore, the law, which is retroactive, eliminated nearly all grounds for appeal.90 One thing the American government did not take into account in enacting this legislation and, more importantly, by not holding bilateral talks with the countries of origin (many of which already had structural problems in their systems of justice), is that the American criminal "culture of drugs and guns [that many carried] back to their native lands [would wreak] havoc in nations that receive them in substantial numbers."91 In 2003, the Associated Press (AP) carried out a six-month investigation into the impact of criminal deportees upon arrival in their home countries, finding that in some instances, the crime waves are overwhelming police.92 According to the AP report, eighty percent of the deportees are being sent to seven Caribbean and Latin American countries: Jamaica, Honduras, El Salvador, Colombia, Mexico, Guatemala and the Dominican Republic. In these nations jobs are scarce and police resources limited. The AP report indicates, citing U.S. Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement sources, that Mexico has absorbed 340,000 of these deportees.93 Given this reality, the Mexican government needs to focus on the social development side of the equation. When, for example, formerly imprisoned Mexicans return to Mexico, they are virtually unemployable. In many instances they are sent to towns with which they are completely unfamiliar, and without money they are unable to make it home and are forced to find whatever jobs they can until they gather enough money to either return to the U.S. and risk jail, or decide what new lives they will have. In El Salvador and Mexico, for example, criminal deportees are greeted by charity workers (often belonging to Roman Catholic affiliated NGOs), given a sandwich and bus fare, and sent on their way.94 The report substantiates what many had suspected: that in order to "survive in what for most of them are unfamiliar surroundings, many [former inmates] turn to crime."95 Currently, the types of criminal deportees who most worry Continued below Continued from above receiving countries are gang members. In Honduras and El Salvador, for example, Los Angeles street gangs with names like Mara Dieciocho (the 18th Street Gang) and Mara Salvatrucha (the 13th Street Gang) are competing for the drug trade, warring both with indigenous thugs and with one another.96 These sophisticated criminals are being sent to unsophisticated, unindustrialized societies where they overwhelm local authorities.97 Furthermore, over the last few years, gangs in general have more often engaged in trafficking activities, such as prostitution of minors, to supplement their income.98 Although the 1996 law was intended to reduce crime in the United States by deporting some of the people who commit it, large-scale deportations are a relatively new crime-prevention strategy.99 Nevertheless, officials in many of the receiving countries, considering that perhaps most criminal deportees were children when they first arrived in the U.S. and have no real connections to the countries of their birth, insist that "home" is not where the criminal aliens are going."100 A big problem with the law, as acknowledged by Rep. Lamar Smith, R-Texas, a primary author of the 1996 legislation, is that "too many eventually make their way back through America's porous borders."101 In Mexico, criminal deportees tend to remain in border towns where U.S. immigration agents drop them off. There, they await their chance to slip back into the United States. In the meantime, Mexican police say, some traffic in drugs and commit other crimes.102 In addition, the problem of returning former U.S. inmates has spread all the way from the tip of Central America to central Mexico. In 2004, police sources in Mexico City indicated that the Central American crime group known as Maras Salvatruchas (Maras) had grown and invaded Mexican territory. These gangs are integrated by young people, including adolescents from El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala, who, in their efforts to reach the United States, have remained in the Valley of Mexico due to lack of monetary resources.103 These young men are considered very dangerous and have engaged in many types of crime, including kidnappings and robberies in the Federal District and State of Mexico, with extreme violence as their trademark.104