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  1. Libidinal Economy by Jean-François Lyotard Deleuze and Guattari for Architects by Andrew Ballantyne: https://circuitdebater.wikispaces.com/file/view/deleuze+guattari+for+architects.pdf
  2. Chinese Whale Shark fishing bringing species to brink of extinction Morlin-Yron 14 (Sophie, journalist, World’s largest whale shark slaughterhouse uncovered in China, The Ecologist, 02/03/14, http://www.theecologist.org/News/news_analysis/2264657/worlds_largest_whale_shark_slaughterhouse_uncovered_in_china.html, AD: 05/23/16 | clhs-SK) Whale shark fins are dried in Pu Qi and sent to Guangzhou, situated in China's southern Guangdong Province, where sold to restaurant owners who use them as ornaments. The large fins are tied with red ribbons and placed on display in the windows of restaurants selling shark fin soup, to attract customers, the investigation found. On a single day in 2012, investigators counted 260 large fins, 136 of them from whale sharks and the rest from basking sharks and great white sharks, for sale in the dried seafood markets of Guangzhou. "We are calling on China's regulatory authorities to enforce the international agreements on this illegal activity now, before these animals are brought closer to extinction", WildLife Risk said. On the brink Morlin-Yron 14 (Sophie, journalist, World’s largest whale shark slaughterhouse uncovered in China, The Ecologist, 02/03/14, http://www.theecologist.org/News/news_analysis/2264657/worlds_largest_whale_shark_slaughterhouse_uncovered_in_china.html, AD: 05/23/16 | clhs-SK) The whale shark's large size, slow speed and habit of swimming near the surface make them easy to kill. Complete figures for the global population of whale sharks are not available, although a monitoring program in 16 countries has been implemented using photo-identification. The whale sharks have unique patterns used to identify each shark. Whale shark numbers are decreasing, and it is "now globally vulnerable to extinction", says UK charity Shark Trust, which works for worldwide shark conservation. "Whale sharks catches have greatly declined over recent years, an indication of the underlying decline in population numbers." Whale sharks are listed as 'vulnerable' by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, meaning they are within the ‘extinction risk' category. More ev. Pash 14 (Chris, Editor, board member of the Australian Society of Authors, and former director of the Pacific Area Newspaper Publisher’s Association, Undercover Activists Say They've Found A Factory In China Turning Endangered Whale Sharks Into Soup And Lipstick, Business Insider Australia, 01/28/14, http://www.businessinsider.com.au/undercover-activists-say-theyve-found-a-factory-in-china-turning-endangered-whale-sharks-into-soup-and-lipstck-2014-1, AD: 05/24/16 | clhs-SK) “How these harmless creatures, these gentle giants of the deep, can be slaughtered on such an industrial scale is beyond belief – all for human vanity; lipsticks, face creams, health supplements, shark fin soup restaurants. We firmly believe the trade must stop, and it must stop now, or else these animals will eventually face extinction.” Chinese whale shark fishing is globally extensive Wild Life Risk 14 (Hong Kong based environmental watchdog, Planet's biggest slaughter of whale sharks exposed in PuQi, Zhejiang Province, China, 01/27/14, http://wildliferisk.org/press-release/ChinaWhaleSharks-WLR-Report-ENG.pdf, AD: 05/23/16 | clhs-SK) Undercover footage and audio recordings obtained by WildLifeRisk reveal that migratory whale sharks present in Australian waters are being caught off the coast of China in the South China Sea, and also further afield in the Pacific – specifically in waters of the Philippines, Indonesia and even as far away as Mexico. Evidence gathered points to an extensive trade network fanning out from China across the globe. Chinese whale shark fishing is massive Wild Life Risk 14 (Hong Kong based environmental watchdog, Planet's biggest slaughter of whale sharks exposed in PuQi, Zhejiang Province, China, 01/27/14, http://wildliferisk.org/press-release/ChinaWhaleSharks-WLR-Report-ENG.pdf, AD: 05/23/16 | clhs-SK) The WildLifeRisk investigation also revealed that whole whale sharks being obtained from Chinese coastal fishermen through an elaborate network of agents and middlemen, many of whom may be unaware of the full conservation status of whale sharks. Opportunistic fishermen based in fishing ports of all sizes up and down the eastern seaboard of China, from Guangdong Province in the South to Shandong Province in the North, are catching whole whale sharks either as by-catch, or as targeted by-catch (intentionally). Some I/Ls Whale sharks ensure marine habitat population control Her 12 (Kelly, staff writer, Saving the Gentle Giants of the Sea, Taiwan Today, 03/01/12, http://www.taiwantoday.tw/fp.asp?xItem=186214&CtNode=2180, AD: 05/24/16 | clhs-SK) The whale shark is a highly migratory species inhabiting tropical and warm waters, and it has long been a target of fishermen throughout Asia. The creatures are hunted primarily for their fins and meat (for human consumption), oil (for waterproofing fishing boat hulls) and skin (for leather products). Shark fin soup, in particular, is usually served at upscale Chinese restaurants or banquets to impress guests. The combination of overfishing, environmental damage and the animal’s biological characteristics, including slow growth, late maturity (at around 30 years of age) and low reproduction rate, has meant that whale shark populations have decreased sharply in the last decade. Recent estimates suggest that Taiwan’s whale shark population is beginning to recover, however, thanks to conservation efforts. Shih Chuan-fa (釋傳法), secretary-general of the Taipei-based animal protection group, Life Conservationist Association (LCA), cites statistics released by the World Wildlife Fund that report more than 180 species of sharks, about one-third of their total number, are at risk of extinction. Shih says this is partly due to the practice of shark finning by fishermen to cater for demand from Chinese communities worldwide. “Eating shark fins is neither ‘necessary’ nor conducive to health, given their low nutritional value,” Shih says. “Some diners eat fins just to gratify their vanity; to show off their wealth because they can afford an expensive dish. They’re probably not aware that their eating habits have caused immense injury and pain to sharks and are having a devastating effect on their survival and the whole ecological system as well.” Sharks, Shih explains, are apex predators—they are at the top of the ocean food chain and prey upon healthy animals, thus ensuring diversity and population control. If they were eliminated, an ecological imbalance would occur. Whale sharks check plankton populations Whalesharkie.com 14 (Whats A Whale Shark?, 2014, http://whalesharkie.weebly.com/whats-a-whale-shark.html, AD: 05/24/16 | clhs-SK) The whale sharks prey includes: plankton, krill, macro algae and small nektonic organisms. The whale sharks niche in the environment is essentially population control. The whale shark spends all day eating and without it the populations of krill and plankton would increase by a large amount. Whale sharks vital to regulate coral reefs Mangat 08 (Rupi, staff writer, The East African (Nairobi) Gentle ocean giant, United Nations Environment Programme: The Environment in the News, 03/10/08, http://www.unep.org/cpi/briefs/2008march11.doc, AD: 05/24/16 | clhs-SK) However, from a holistic point of view, coral reef walls without the whale shark could suffer too. As plankton feeders, they keep a balance between the plankton and the corals. Too much plankton could possibly smother the live coral and degrade it. Accompanying the team is a young volunteer from Switzerland, David French, working for the Antinea Foundation. After this expedition, he will be part of the team on a 33-metre long schooner called Fleur de Passion (flower of passion). The schooner will be fully equipped with a scientific laboratory and a robotic device that will descend into the ocean depths and transmit information via the satellite to web TV. Food adulteration Whale shark parts and oil are a primary reason for their capture Wild Life Risk 14 (Hong Kong based environmental watchdog, Planet's biggest slaughter of whale sharks exposed in PuQi, Zhejiang Province, China, 01/27/14, http://wildliferisk.org/press-release/ChinaWhaleSharks-WLR-Report-ENG.pdf, AD: 05/23/16 | clhs-SK) Investigators learned that shark skins are sold as leather into the bag trade, while whale shark lips, stomach and flesh are sold into the restaurant trade as 'food'. However, the real money-maker, is the shark’s liver. Shark oil is a valuable product that is concentrated in high quantities in the liver. Oil from the liver is extracted for skin care products and lipstick, as well as for Omega-3 health supplements. These supplements are currently being sold internationally in contravention of CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) regulations, as well as relevant Chinese national laws and regulations. It has further been suggested that the Jiahua Omega-3 pills may contain heavy metals such as methyl- mercury, although this has not yet been independently verified. It’s sold off as “tilapia” Tatlow 14 (Didi Kristen, International staff writer for NYT in China, Mass Slaughter of Vulnerable Shark Species in China, Wildlife Group Says, New York Times, 01/28/14, http://sinosphere.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/01/28/mass-slaughter-of-vulnerable-shark-species-in-china-wildlife-group-says/, AD: 05/23/16 | clhs-SK) Fins were generally kept in China and flesh was sold as food, while the skins were sold into the bag industry, the new report’s authors said. However, the oil often was exported overseas, including to the United States and Canada, as health supplements or for the cosmetic industry, they said. A manager at the company, whom they identified as Li Guang, said shark products were being labeled as tilapia, a commonly farmed fish, Mr. Hilton said in an interview. More ev. RT 14 (Russia Today, World’s rarest shark falls victim to fish oil market, 01/29/14, https://www.rt.com/news/sharks-china-endangered-oil-361/, AD: 05/24/16 | clhs-SK) Compounding the problem is China’s domestic market, where the animal is valued for its fins and parts of its stomach, which are considered delicacies in Chinese cuisine. The meat is then sold to neighboring countries and restaurants around Europe, according to Li Guang, the manager at the plant, speaking to the NGO’s researchers. Probably unaware of the fact that he was being filmed, he also said that shark oil product containers are being mislabeled as tilapia – a common local fish. Food adulteration violates basic Human Rights Solaiman & Ali 14 (S. M., Senior Lecturer at Uni of Wollongong, Abu Noman Mohammad Atahar, Head of Dept. of Law & Human Rights at Uni of Asia Pacific, Extensive Food Adulteration in Bangladesh: A Violation of Fundamental Human Rights and the State’s Binding Obligations, Journal of Asia and African Studies, Vol. 49 No. 5, Oct. 2014, pg. 617-629, SAGE, AD: 05/24/16 | clhs-SK) The right to life is inherently connected with the right to food which implies that any foodstuff be nutritious and safe. The government of Bangladesh bears binding obligations to protect these rights under both international human rights instruments and its national constitution. The violation of these rights has, nonetheless, been commonplace causing numerous human deaths and terminal diseases. The perpetrators have been adulterating foods, flouting laws with impunity and taking advantage of regulatory impotence and governmental lenience for decades. Laws exist in books, regulators subsist in theory, but consumers die without remedies. This situation must not prevail forever as every human has an inherent right to live until their natural demise. This article aims to explore the binding obligations of the government to prevent food adulteration and to protect people’s essential rights. It highlights that numerous laws exist almost invisibly in the country, and recommends that their enforcement be reinforced in order to protect the people who are exposed to the overly contaminated food markets in Bangladesh. Food safety is vital to Human Rights Solaiman & Ali 14 (S. M., Senior Lecturer at Uni of Wollongong, Abu Noman Mohammad Atahar, Head of Dept. of Law & Human Rights at Uni of Asia Pacific, Extensive Food Adulteration in Bangladesh: A Violation of Fundamental Human Rights and the State’s Binding Obligations, Journal of Asia and African Studies, Vol. 49 No. 5, Oct. 2014, pg. 617-629, SAGE, AD: 05/24/16 | clhs-SK) All human rights are interrelated, interdependent, and indivisible. Therefore, the enjoyment of one right may necessitate access to other entitlements. For example, the enjoyment of the right to life entails, amongst other things, the consumption of safe foods. Right to health and right to safe food are thus intrinsically combined in the right to life as a human right. International human rights and fundamental rights are generally distinguished by reference to their incorporation in a national constitution and in a piece of implementing/enabling legislation.3 Fundamental rights are explicitly or by necessary implication embodied in, and guaranteed by, the national constitution; they require ‘a high degree of protection from government encroachment’, as recognized by the US Supreme Court (USSC) (Cornell University Law School, 2010). These rights are often called ‘fundamental constitutional rights’ (Dorf, 1996: 1176). The Constitution of Bangladesh (constitution) has adopted many of these international human rights as ‘fundamental rights’ (articles 26–44). Highlighting the importance of fundamental rights, the USSC in Palko v State of Connecticut held that ‘neither liberty nor justice would exist if they were sacrificed’ (302 US, 1937: 326). The most distinctive feature of fundamental rights is perhaps their inviolability, evident from the pronouncement more than a century ago of the USSC in Boyd and Others v United States that, ‘t is the duty of courts to be watchful for the constitutional rights of the citizen, and against any stealthy encroachments thereon’.4 The Supreme Court of Bangladesh (SCB) has echoed this view on several occasions. Asserting the responsibility of the state, the SCB pronounced in Ain O Salish Kendra (ASK) v Government of Bangladesh (19 BLD (HCD), 1999: 488) that the state has a constitutional obligation to make effective provisions for securing the right to life, living and livelihood within its economic capacity. Declaring its own duty, the SCB held in State v Deputy Commissioner Satkhira (14 BLD (HCD), 1994: 266) that the court has a constitutional responsibility to ensure that the people’s fundamental rights are preserved and well protected. Human rights treaties confer rights directly on individuals, and such a treaty thus binds a state party to both its own nationals and other parties to the instrument under the principle of pacta sunt servanda (Alam, 2006: 413). The set of norms and obligations laid down by international human rights law is enforceable against a member state to protect rights of its citizens as human rights (Kiobel v Royal Dutch Petroleum, 621 F 3d 111 (2d Cir, 2010); Weiss and Shamit, 2011: 155−156). Regarding the right to food, the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) observes that domestic courts are increasingly hearing allegations against violations of this right as the ultimate guarantor of human rights (OHCHR, 2010: 31). In relation to the enforcement of international human rights, the Supreme Court of India (SCI) played a proactive role, holding in Vishaka v State of Rajasthan that international norms were to be read into fundamental rights even if this is not particularly transformed into domestic law (JT (1997) (7) SC 392; AIR (1997) SC 3011).5 The High Court of Australia took a similar approach to international human rights in Minister of State for Immigration and Ethnic Affairs v Teoh (183 CLR (1995) 273). This is especially pertinent to the present research in that, although Bangladesh is a party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), which directly confers the right to food upon the people, it has not enacted any enabling legislation giving this crucial covenant the force of law (Ziegler et al., 2011: 159). Therefore, a state which incorporates certain rights in its constitution and ratifies an international convention containing those rights assumes binding obligations under both the national and international instruments. Food adulteration falls under food safety Negri 09 (Stefania, Associate Prof of Intl Law at the Law School at Uni Degli Studi Di Salerno & founder and director of the Observatory on Human Rights: Bioethics, Health, Environment, Food Safety and Global Health: An International Law Perspective, Global Health Governance Journal, Vol. 3 No. 1, Fall 2009, pg. 4, GHG, AD: 05/24/16 | clhs-SK) In normative terms, the human right to adequate food is rooted in the above-mentioned article 25, paragraph 1 of the Universal Declaration and further elaborated in article 11, paragraph 2, of the Covenant, which recognizes the fundamental right of every person to be free from hunger, and the duty of States to take, individually and through international cooperation, the measures needed to implement this right by improving the methods of production, conservation and distribution of food. In its general comment on the right to adequate food, the Committee underlines that “the right … is indivisibly linked to the inherent dignity of the human person and is indispensable for the fulfilment of other human rights enshrined in the International Bill of Human Rights”.24 While recognizing that the right to adequate food is crucial for the enjoyment of all rights, the Committee considers that the core content of this right implies “the availability of food in a quantity and quality sufficient to satisfy the dietary needs of individuals, free from adverse substances”.25 The latter formula is explained as setting “requirements for food safety and for a range of protective measures by both public and private means to prevent contamination of foodstuffs through adulteration and/or through bad environmental hygiene or inappropriate handling at different stages throughout the food chain; care must also be taken to identify and avoid or destroy naturally occurring toxins”.26 Food safety is a priori to the right to food which is key to access other Human Rights Solaiman & Ali 14 (S. M., Senior Lecturer at Uni of Wollongong, Abu Noman Mohammad Atahar, Head of Dept. of Law & Human Rights at Uni of Asia Pacific, Extensive Food Adulteration in Bangladesh: A Violation of Fundamental Human Rights and the State’s Binding Obligations, Journal of Asia and African Studies, Vol. 49 No. 5, Oct. 2014, pg. 617-629, SAGE, AD: 05/24/16 | clhs-SK) Affirming their indivisibility, the OHCHR (2010: 5) provides that violations of the right to food may hinder the enjoyment of other human rights such as right to life and right to health. It further clarifies that the right to safe food is inherent in the broader right to food which requires the food to be adequate, safe and accessible (OHCHR, 2010: 5). The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in April 2013 (United Nations, 2003a: para 27) reaffirmed the interplay between this right to life and right to safe food. Negri (2009: 3) explains the emergence of the right to safe food as an autonomous human right derived from the rights to food and to health, noting that these rights are closely interrelated. Food adulteration is a gross denial of the right to life Solaiman & Ali 14 (S. M., Senior Lecturer at Uni of Wollongong, Abu Noman Mohammad Atahar, Head of Dept. of Law & Human Rights at Uni of Asia Pacific, Extensive Food Adulteration in Bangladesh: A Violation of Fundamental Human Rights and the State’s Binding Obligations, Journal of Asia and African Studies, Vol. 49 No. 5, Oct. 2014, pg. 617-629, SAGE, AD: 05/24/16 | clhs-SK) The contemporary broad concept of protection of the right to life includes providing basic needs such as food, medical care and access to health facilities (Menghistu, 1985: 63). The United Nations Human Rights Committee (UNHRC, 1980: para 59) requires member states to take positive steps to protect even the environment in order to protect the right to life. Thus, life essentially requires food. The modern construction of the right to food has been extended to incorporate safe food in order to ensure sound health and active life (FAO, 2003: 27). Food adulteration which vitiates the quality of foodstuffs through adding inferior substance destroys or diminishes the nutritional value of foods, contributing to malnutrition of consumers (Armenta and Guardia, 2010: 878). Malnutrition causes serious harm (Ziegler et al., 2011: 2). Such a finding underscores the significance of safe foods, and justifies the claim that the right to food is one of the most important entitlements amongst all economic, social and cultural rights (Kong, 2009: 560). Simply, any food is for a life to live, and if the substance is unsafe for humans, it cannot be human food in any true definition of food. The right to life and right to food are internationally recognized as follows. [insert human rights impacts]
  3. Here's whats been sent so far. US-Sino relations are cyclic in nature, cognitive stereotypes on both sides doom any improvements to failure and fallout Shambaugh 03 (David, prof of poli sci and international affairs at George Washington Uni, Introduction: Imagining Demons: the rise of negative imagery in US–China relations, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 12 No. 35, 2003, pg. 235-236, Taylor & Francis Online, AD: 05/16/16 | clhs-SK) Americans both romanticized and demonized China and the Chinese—considering them to be cultivated and erudite as well as despotic and heathen, earthy yet superstitious, ideological yet pragmatic, stoic yet sadistic, conservative yet extremist, calm and introspective yet warlike and aggressive, weak yet formidable, and so on. For their part, the Chinese respected and sought to emulate the United States, while also feeling revulsion over many aspects of American society and culture and contempt for American behavior abroad. The United States was, for many Chinese, a ‘beautiful imperialist’ (Mei Di). Sometimes these contradictory and dualistic images existed simultaneously in the collective mindsets of each, while during other periods one set of stereotypes became dominant and held sway for some time before swinging back in the opposite direction. Either way, scholars noted that this ambivalence produced a ‘love–hate syndrome’ in mutual imagery.2 This dual syndrome played directly into a fairly repetitive cycle in the relations between the two countries: Mutual Enchantment → Raised Expectations → Unfulfilled Expectations → Disillusion and Disenchantment → Recrimination and Fallout → Separation and Hostility → Re-embrace and Re-enchantment. And then the cycle repeats. While not always mechanical and predictable, the Sino–American relationship over the past century has tended to follow this pattern while ambivalent mutual images have paralleled and underlaid the pattern. The result has been alternating amity and enmity. The notion that nature tries to establish and exist in balance is a myth – the role of density regulating factors are over exaggerated Ehrlich & Birch 67 (Paul R., Renowned prof. of Bio at Stanford Uni & President of Center for Conservation Biology, Charles L., Prof of Bio at Uni of Sydney & winner of Templeton Prize, THE "BALANCE OF NATURE" AND "POPULATION CONTROL", The American Naturalist, Vol. 101 No. 918, March-April 1967, pg. 97-107, JSTOR, AD: 05/23/16 | clhs-SK) The idea that there is a "balance of nature" is commonly held by biologists. They feel that the organisms in a community are harmoniously adjusted to one another so that a state of dynamic equilibrium exists. In this equilibrium the numbers of the individuals of each species in the community remain relatively constant, and significant changes in numbers occur only when something upsets the natural "balance." This view of the "balance of nature" is perpetuated by popular magazines and nature films, and thus is part of the lore of the man-in-the-street. In our opinion, it is more difficult to explain why it persists in the writings of ecologists. In this paper we will first examine this idea as it appears in the ecological literature, and then present a realistic basis for models of "population control." The existence of a supposed balance of nature is usually argued some- what as follows. Species X has been in existence for thousands or perhaps millions of generations, and yet its numbers have never increased to infinity or decreased to zero. The same is true of the millions of other species still extant. During the next 100 years, the numbers of all these species will fluctuate; yet none will increase indefinitely, and only a few will become extinct. Furthermore, most species have at least some populations living in areas where they are well able to cope with the climate, yet even these populations never increase indefinitely. Such "observations" are made the basis for the statement that population size is "controlled" or "regulated," and that drastic changes in size are the results of upsetting the "balance of nature." Sometimes this is put in other ways, such as "on the average, the species just replaces its numbers in successive generations" or "on the average, the numbers of individuals over a long period of time are constant." An extreme version can be found in Slobodkin (1962, p. 46). "Despite this enormous variation in reproductive patterns, each female adult animal alive now-in every species, in almost every location-will be replaced by precisely one female alive a generation from now. If this were not the case, the size of animal populations would be changing permanently and strikingly at a much greater rate than any existing evidence indicates." In this form, the "balance of nature" idea can be dealt with quite simply. Indeed, Slobodkin's statement may well be the most thoroughly falsified hypothesis still current in population biology. A survey of the literature fails to disclose a single case of a natural population behaving in the manner described. Even in those few situations in which the size of the population has been observed to remain relatively constant, "precise" one-for-one re- placement does not occur. A well-known statement about the balance of nature is "population densities are continually changing, but their values tend to oscillate about a mean which is relatively stable, though itself subject to change" (Smith, 1935, as quoted by Varley and Gradwell, 1958). Smith, unlike Slobodkin, at least recognized that numbers of organisms are continually changing; but the rest of his statement is almost meaningless for the following reasons. First, any set of values does not oscillate around a mean which is "relatively stable." The values oscillate around a mean that is fixed. The only ways the mean can be subjected to change are by weighting values, adding values, or subtracting values (or, of course, by substituting a different kind of mean). Any set of numbers which is not generally increasing or decreasing will oscillate around its mean. This, indeed, is the total information content of the second part of Smith's statement. Second, Smith's statement has been taken to imply that mean population size has an objective existence separate from the observed population sizes. This cannot be so. Some have also implied that a population will "strive" to return to this "mean." We are unable to attach any meaning to such an implication. In saying that phrases such as "balance of nature" are rather meaningless, we are not denying that the numbers of some populations may be influenced by so-called "regulatory factors," i.e., whose depressive effect on rate of increase is positively correlated with density (Solomon, 1964). We would deny that there is any convincing evidence that the numbers of all populations are primarily determined by density regulating factors. We do not deny the role such "factors" play in some populations. Indeed, it would be quite an interesting exercise as Solomon (1964, p. 9) suggests to measure the effects of density-regulating and nondensity-regulating factors in any particular case. There are substantial problems in designing practical tests of regulation in natural populations, but these may not be insurmountable. We would expect the role of regulatory factors to vary among species, among populations of the same species, and through time. Broad trophic level analysis of Population Control in nature is based on misconstrued modeling – err away from density dependent analysis Ehrlich & Birch 67 (Paul R., Renowned prof. of Bio at Stanford Uni & President of Center for Conservation Biology, Charles L., Prof of Bio at Uni of Sydney & winner of Templeton Prize, THE "BALANCE OF NATURE" AND "POPULATION CONTROL", The American Naturalist, Vol. 101 No. 918, March-April 1967, pg. 97-107, JSTOR, AD: 05/23/16 | clhs-SK) Hairston, Smith, and Slobodkin make it clear that they consider it legitimate to argue logically from "trophic level" to "population." But this procedure is not valid. In the first place, a "trophic level" exists only as an abstraction. As Murdoch (1966) has pointed out, tens of thousands of species of insects, for example, live in more than one trophic level; and, unlike populations, a trophic level has no properties that can be measured. Secondly, the argument from trophic level to population involves the idea that persistence of species can be used as an argument for "population control." Since this proposition is one of the most common fallacies in population biology, we shall now examine it in some detail. This is the supposition made by the so-called "density-dependent" school on Population control." The basic idea of this school is that, for a species that persists, "sooner or later" or "ultimately" the density of the population is the determining factor in whether or not the rate of increase will be positive or negative. For this to be so, the size of the population must in some way affect the individuals in the population. Now, consideration of numbers of individuals in a species cannot ordinarily throw light on the question of density-dependence. To investigate this one must investigate changes in local populations. For example, satyrine butterflies of the species Erebia magdalena live, among other places, on rock slides in Alaska and in the Colorado Rockies. A population explosion in an Alaskan colony will have no effect on the Colorado colonies, and a Colorado extinction will not affect the Alaskan Erebia magdalena. Changes in the size of the Colorado population in no way affect the individuals in the Alaskan population, and vice versa. If we had mapped and censused all colonies of Erebia magdalena, we would know the population size for the species. But if we were magically handed the population size 2,328,456 for the species, we would know nothing about the sizes of the colonies. If we had information on rates of movement among colonies, and about the probabilities of colony extinction, we could make an estimate of the chance of species extinction per generation. But if we were told that the chance of species extinction was 10-7 per generation, we would know virtually nothing about the probabilities of extinction of individual colonies. In short, statements about species without reference to their component populations are unlikely to tell us much about "population control." E. editha population study proves Ehrlich & Birch 67 (Paul R., Renowned prof. of Bio at Stanford Uni & President of Center for Conservation Biology, Charles L., Prof of Bio at Uni of Sydney & winner of Templeton Prize, THE "BALANCE OF NATURE" AND "POPULATION CONTROL", The American Naturalist, Vol. 101 No. 918, March-April 1967, pg. 97-107, JSTOR, AD: 05/23/16 | clhs-SK) An example is the three populations of the checkerspot butterfly Euphydryas editha on Stanford University's Jasper Ridge Biological Experimental Area. Over the five years 1960-64, a casual observer wandering along the ridge would find E. editha butterflies on the wing there every spring. "How precise is the control of natural populations" he might say, "for are there not butterflies here every year?" He might even guess at the number of butterflies present each year. He could then add up his estimates, divide by the number of years, and come up with an average adult population size. Superimposing this average on a chart of his yearly estimates he would find the average presented as a straight line parallel to the time axis. It could not, of course, be otherwise. "Nature" he would say, "keeps the average size of this population constant." Only if our observer had taken the trouble to determine that the Ridge was actually occupied by three discrete populations of E. editha would he have found out what was actually going on; that, in fact, he had witnessed one population increase steadily in size, another fluctuate in size, and the third decrease to extinction (Ehrlich, 1965). Factors affecting populations are stochastic - Reject deterministic modeling and predictions Ehrlich & Birch 67 (Paul R., Renowned prof. of Bio at Stanford Uni & President of Center for Conservation Biology, Charles L., Prof of Bio at Uni of Sydney & winner of Templeton Prize, THE "BALANCE OF NATURE" AND "POPULATION CONTROL", The American Naturalist, Vol. 101 No. 918, March-April 1967, pg. 97-107, JSTOR, AD: 05/23/16 | clhs-SK) The fourth proposition is that the influences of various components of the environment on population size will vary. That is, these components (weather, resources, etc.) will act differently on populations of different densities, on different populations of the same species, on populations of different species, and so on. Knowing what factors are primarily influencing the size of a Jasper Ridge Euphydryas editha population in 1966 will not necessarily tell us what the determinants of the size of that population will be in 1967. Nor will it necessarily tell us what factors are responsible for the size of the E. editha population at Woodside, California, in 1966. It is difficult enough to obtain the data necessary for generalizing about a single species, let alone for all the species at a particular trophic level. The most we can hope for in the way of broad generalizations are probabilistic statements such as "territorial animals are less likely to be limited by shortage of food than are non-territorial animals."
  4. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/indian-naval-ships-sail-for-operational-deployment-to-south-china-sea/articleshow/52332200.cms SCS getting hot
  5. hahaha I Can't Hold Back by Survivor basically depicts how I feel To everyone that sent me requests and PM's, I have a substantial queue to go through but rest assured I will try my best or will let you know if I am unable to fulfill a request. Around June I'll probably have more time on my hands. Also in regards to the anthro requests, I never ran anthro, only read answers to it. The K was just starting to make horizons my junior year (I come from the era of Cap K, Nietzsche, Psychoanalysis, and Security K), but I have friends that ran it substantially on both Highschool and Collegiate circuits so I'll talk to them and then try and help yall out from there.
  6. Yes and yes but for the anthro stuff you might have to point me in a direction. I never read anthro, only answers to it
  7. Hi guys, been a while since I've been on the site. Long story short I'm having debater withdrawals since there is no policy program at my college and I would really like to help anyone with finding and cutting evidence. I enjoy reading about various topics and since semester has ended for me I'd rather spend my free time cutting cards then studying biochem... Background: I debated for 4 years in Texas, debating at both TFA State and NFL Nationals (no TOC, sorry I am a noob) from 09-13. Still have all my files for referencing as well. PS to Mods: I wasn't sure what forum to post this to so feel free to move it to where ever appropriate
  8. For those w/o access to the book here is a talk given by Pan that shadows some of the topics
  9. Hey Hi-dig-air, sorry to butt in and if you don't want to its fine, but I would really appreciate it if I could see your speeches just out of curiosity of what your running but all your files are set to private so if you could change that so I could view them I would greatly appreciate it.
  10. So I've realized for some time the archived wiki's of the '08-'09 Alt. Energy topic and the '09-'10 Social Services (Poverty) Topic are unavailable, at least to me they are. Every time I click the link (http://www.the3nr.com/wiki/?title=Special:PrefixIndex&prefix=2009-2010&namespace=0) I just get an Error message. Batterman has posted a message about how the wiki's were taken down and re-hosted on The3NR but since I can't seem to access them I would like to know whether they are forever lost or if there is another way to access them/ the chance that they will once again be re-hosted. Thanks in advance.
  11. vladlock

    Technonietzsche

    philingphamous, hope this will help you understand the basics: http://jetpress.org/v20/sorgner.htm
  12. Could you expand on how it would fall under the rez and what adv. you are planning to claim?
  13. Don't mean to steal away from the topic of the thread but there are cards talking about how there are other viable tether cables.
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