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cap collapsing now/collapse inevitable

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Yo, I need a card that says this.  I'm sure I have some, i just can't find them anywhere.  Up to trade if that's how valuable this singular card is to you.  

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The system is crisis-prone—collapse is inevitable

Li ’13 Minqi Li, “The 21st Century: Is There An Alternative (to Socialism)?” Science & Society: Vol. 77, January 2013, No. 1, pp. 10-43, doi: 10.1521/siso.2013.77.1.10

Over the past one and a half century, the long-term tendency towards rising wage, taxation, and environmental costs seem to have accelerated. The rising wage and taxation costs have reflected the long-term challenges from the “anti-systemic movements” (social democracy, national liberation movements, and “communism”), which forced the system’s ruling elites to make major concessions in the mid-20th century. The rising environmental costs have resulted from the relentless capital accumulation, which has greatly accelerated the depletion of the natural resources and the degradation of the global environment (Wallerstein, 2003, 57-66). As a result, the capitalist world system has been under great pressure to accelerate the pace of global industrial relocation. This has led to the dramatic expansion of the geographic zone of semi-periphery over the past quarter of a century. Most importantly, China and India, by serving as the centers of the latest round of global industrial relocation, have joined the rank of the semi-periphery. China’s per capita GDP has by now risen to about one-seventh of the US level and India could reach a similar relative level in about a decade. Given the enormous size of the Chinese and Indian population, then by around 2020, the world semi-periphery (defined as the geographical areas with per capita GDP around one-fifth of the level in the most advanced capitalist state) would have expanded to include about 60 percent of the world population. Can the capitalist world system survive such a massive expansion of the semi-periphery? With the massive expansion of the semi-periphery, there will inevitably be a major redistribution of the world surplus value. As less of the world surplus value is concentrated in the core, it will become increasingly difficult for the core states to finance capital accumulation in the leading industries. The core states will also have growing difficulty to maintain a large pool of “cadres”, the system’s skilled and managerial labor force or the “middle class”. Already, virtually all core capitalist countries are now confronted with insurmountable fiscal crises. Fiscal crisis, in essence, is the sign that capitalism in the core zone can no longer simultaneously provide favorable conditions of capitalist accumulation while maintaining “social peace” (that is, to secure the political loyalty of the middle classes) at home. It is widely recognized that the US hegemonic power is in irreversible decline, both in the sense that the relative economic position of the United States has been falling in the capitalist world system and in the more important sense that the United States is less willing and less able to regulate the system for the system’s long-term, common interest. The current expansion of the semi-periphery has obviously accelerated the decline of the US hegemonic power. More ominously for the capitalist world system, the great expansion of the semi-periphery has also made it much less likely and even impossible for a new hegemonic power to emerge by dramatically increasing the number of states that is relevant in the system-wide politics. This is shown by the expansion of the most high-profiled global policy making body from the so-called “G7” group to the so-called “G20” group. The capitalist world system is an inter-state system. The arrangement of the inter-state system is necessary for maintaining a balance of power between the state and capital in terms that are favorable for capital accumulation. However, the system also has a fatal flaw. As the system does not have a “world government”, there is no effective mechanism to secure and promote the system’s long-term, common interest (such as global peace, global macroeconomic management, construction of global social compromise, and global environmental management) and unrestrained inter-state competition could lead to the system’s self-destruction. Historically, the capitalist world system has relied upon the periodic hegemonic powers (the Netherlands in the 17th century, the United Kingdom in the 19th century, and the United States in the 20th century) as a proxy for the world government to regulate the system’s long-term, common interest. With the massive expansion of the semi-periphery, this historical mechanism required for the normal functioning of the capitalist world system begins to break down (Li 2008, 113-138).


Capitalism’s exploitation of labor and resources will collapse modern civilization—radical redistribution of resources is necessary to avert mass violence

Ahmed ‘14

Nafeez Ahmed. Executive Director of the Institute for Policy Research & Development. March 14 2014. “NASA-funded study: industrial civilization headed for ‘irreversible collapse’? The Guardian.

A new study partly-sponsored by Nasa's Goddard Space Flight Center has highlighted the prospect that global industrial civilisation could collapse in coming decades due to unsustainable resource exploitation and increasingly unequal wealth distribution. Noting that warnings of 'collapse' are often seen to be fringe or controversial, the study attempts to make sense of compelling historical data showing that "the process of rise-and-collapse is actually a recurrent cycle found throughout history." Cases of severe civilisational disruption due to "precipitous collapse - often lasting centuries - have been quite common."The independent research project is based on a new cross-disciplinary 'Human And Nature DYnamical' (HANDY) model, led by applied mathematician Safa Motesharrei of the US National Science Foundation-supported National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, in association with a team of natural and social scientists. The HANDY model was created using a minor Nasa grant, but the study based on it was conducted independently. The study based on the HANDY model has been accepted for publication in the peer-reviewed Elsevier journal, Ecological Economics. It finds that according to the historical record even advanced, complex civilisations are susceptible to collapse, raising questions about the sustainability of modern civilisation:"The fall of the Roman Empire, and the equally (if not more) advanced Han, Mauryan, and Gupta Empires, as well as so many advanced Mesopotamian Empires, are all testimony to the fact that advanced, sophisticated, complex, and creative civilizations can be both fragile and impermanent."By investigating the human-nature dynamics of these past cases of collapse, the project identifies the most salient interrelated factors which explain civilisational decline, and which may help determine the risk of collapse today: namely, Population, Climate, Water, Agriculture, and Energy. These factors can lead to collapse when they converge to generate two crucial social features: "the stretching of resources due to the strain placed on the ecological carrying capacity"; and "the economic stratification of society into Elites [rich] and Masses (or "Commoners") [poor]" These social phenomena have played "a central role in the character or in the process of the collapse," in all such cases over "the last five thousand years."Currently, high levels of economic stratification are linked directly to overconsumption of resources, with "Elites" based largely in industrialised countries responsible for both:"... accumulated surplus is not evenly distributed throughout society, but rather has been controlled by an elite. The mass of the population, while producing the wealth, is only allocated a small portion of it by elites, usually at or just above subsistence levels."The study challenges those who argue that technology will resolve these challenges by increasing efficiency: "Technological change can raise the efficiency of resource use, but it also tends to raise both per capita resource consumption and the scale of resource extraction, so that, absent policy effects, the increases in consumption often compensate for the increased efficiency of resource use." Productivity increases in agriculture and industry over the last two centuries has come from "increased (rather than decreased) resource throughput," despite dramatic efficiency gains over the same period. Modelling a range of different scenarios, Motesharrei and his colleagues conclude that under conditions "closely reflecting the reality of the world today... we find that collapse is difficult to avoid." In the first of these scenarios, civilisation: ".... appears to be on a sustainable path for quite a long time, but even using an optimal depletion rate and starting with a very small number of Elites, the Elites eventually consume too much, resulting in a famine among Commoners that eventually causes the collapse of society. It is important to note that this Type-L collapse is due to an inequality-induced famine that causes a loss of workers, rather than a collapse of Nature." Another scenario focuses on the role of continued resource exploitation, finding that "with a larger depletion rate, the decline of the Commoners occurs faster, while the Elites are still thriving, but eventually the Commoners collapse completely, followed by the Elites." In both scenarios, Elite wealth monopolies mean that they are buffered from the most "detrimental effects of the environmental collapse until much later than the Commoners", allowing them to "continue 'business as usual' despite the impending catastrophe." The same mechanism, they argue, could explain how "historical collapses were allowed to occur by elites who appear to be oblivious to the catastrophic trajectory (most clearly apparent in the Roman and Mayan cases)." Applying this lesson to our contemporary predicament, the study warns that: "While some members of society might raise the alarm that the system is moving towards an impending collapse and therefore advocate structural changes to society in order to avoid it, Elites and their supporters, who opposed making these changes, could point to the long sustainable trajectory 'so far' in support of doing nothing." However, the scientists point out that the worst-case scenarios are by no means inevitable, and suggest that appropriate policy and structural changes could avoid collapse, if not pave the way toward a more stable civilisation. The two key solutions are to reduce economic inequality so as to ensure fairer distribution of resources, and to dramatically reduce resource consumption by relying on less intensive renewable resources and reducing population growth: "Collapse can be avoided and population can reach equilibrium if the per capita rate of depletion of nature is reduced to a sustainable level, and if resources are distributed in a reasonably equitable fashion."

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Those two cards are good and popular, but there's a card I like that's more recent and better.


Also, does anyone have an impact to cap that's like cap --> private military companies -> which are bad? Would really appreciate that.



Neolib UQ.docx

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