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CarlaR

Arctic Mapping Off case Neg

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Hey all,

 

I'm looking for good Arctic mapping off case positions--preferably no K's because I don't debate in the ideal league for them. I was thinking Russia SOI and some actor counterplan...maybe Norway? 
 

Thanks!

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T-Oceans might be worth something, but I've already ranted on this on another thread:  http://www.cross-x.com/topic/57891-most-common-affirmatives-you-have-seen/page-2.

 

I would think that a UN/supernational body CP might work, that's probably the best chance of checking back any international conflict scenarios that the 1AC reads, and probs science too. 

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I LOST TO THIS AGAIN AND I'M FED UP.

 

The SOI Da+ arctic cp didn't work. Politics and the kritik didn't work. I need new ideas please

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I've hit arctic mapping only once, and this was my neg strat:

T - Non-military

NOAA Tradeoff DA (JPSS)

China DA

Canada CP

We ended up going for NOAA Tradeoff and Canada CP in the 2NR.

Edited by totalnoob

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In my opinion the best ground against this aff is with K's. However, I get that you're circuit isn't exactly K friendly so the best DA in my opinion is a China SOI DA. there's a number of possible CP's available, such as privates, Canada, and the arctic council CP.

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What's their advs? Have you tried impact turning their advs? Also T definetly sounds like an option

 

They claim shipping and methane hydrates. For shipping they read Royal as their impact and methane hydrates they harp on about the permian extinction. It's literally the michigan 7 week file Edited by carlaramazan

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They claim shipping and methane hydrates. For shipping they read Royal as their impact and methane hydrates they harp on about the permian extinction. It's literally the michigan 7 week file

https://www.dropbox.com/s/bfy8508p4o0cokq/a2%20Royal%2010%27.docx?dl=0

 

I don't know if this will really help that much, but we read it against Royal 10' because it talks about the diversionary theory. 

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I would just put a ton of impact d on shipping (like apot7372 said), and read some "tech for methane hydrates not ready yet - can't solve before impacts" for methane hydrates.

And I guess a Japan CP would work in this case, with a cp text of "Japan should increase its hydrographic mapping and surveying capabilities in the Arctic and share all data with the United States."

Solvency ev:

The CP solves and fosters international collaboration

OPRF 12, Proposed by the Arctic Conference Japan to the Government (“Developing a Japan Policy towards the Arctic Ocean”, March 2012, http://www.nccj.or.jp/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Developing-a-Japan-Policy-towards-the-Arctic-Ocean-OPRF.pdf)//dodo

The government should strengthen the National Polar Research Institute to become a national and international core of Arctic research. - The Antarctic Research Vessel “Shirase” should play a role in international polar research, including the Arctic, as a research platform. - Collaboration in scientific research with Russia under a science and technology consultation agreement should be promoted. Collaboration with Arctic states is essential for Japanese researchers to carry out studies on utilization of and environmental protection of the Arctic Ocean. As seen in the establishment of the Japan Consortium for Arctic Research in 2011, there is a growing interest in Arctic research. The National Polar Research Institute, which has been playing a leading role in Antarctic research, is expected to do the same for the Arctic. The government should develop the institute as a core of Japanese Arctic research and to be a focal point for international collaboration. A research vessel in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean would be a powerful tool for Arctic study and would be able to promote research cooperation with Arctic states. Although it would be ideal ¡f Japan could build such a vessel, it seems unlikely in the current situation of difficult finances. A possible alternative is the Shirase, which has currently used for Antarctic research only. The Shirase’s high ice-going performance is internationally recognized. Considering the fact that ice-breaking research vessels in other countries are commonly utilized in both polar regions, it would be practicable for the Shirase to sail in the Arctic as well if a reasonable operation scheme and necessary budget are provided. Japan’s relations with Russia are much more important In the days of the global warming. The Russian Arctic has significant impacts on the forecast and understanding of the climate, agriculture and fisheries of Japan. Japan and Asian regions do the similar impacts on the Russian ones, especially in the Russian Far East. Japan-Russia science and technology collaboration would be crucial.

Japan has advanced ocean exploration and research tech

Kashiwabara 11 (Yashiro, staff writer for the Nikkei Weekly, “Institute sets out to solve Earth's mysteries with high-tech ships,” 10/28/11, accessed from Lexis Nexis)//KJZ

A huge white ship 105 meters long greets you when you pass through the gates of the Yokosuka Headquarters of the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC). It is the Yokosuka, which functions as the support ship for surveys of the deep-sea bottom by the manned submersible Shinkai 6500. Back from survey work in the Tohoku region of northeastern Japan, the Shinkai 6500 sits inside the giant hangar of the Yokosuka, under maintenance. The kinds of studies that can be carried out by JAMSTEC's entire fleet of research vessels have only grown in importance since the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11. One JAMSTEC institute now in the spotlight is the Institute for Research on Earth Evolution (IFREE), which seeks to unravel the mysteries of hugely energetic earth phenomena and answer questions like why earthquakes happen and volcanoes erupt. IFREE is investigating the behavior of the plates that comprise the outermost layer of our planet, as well as the structure of the thick mantle below these plates. Like no other With its unique fleet of research vessels and exploratory equipment, IFREE is a peerless research organization. Among the vessels at its disposal is the deep-sea research ship Kairei, which is equipped with sounding machines for seafloor topography and subbottom profiling in trenches. In one mission in the waters of Kumano Nada off the Kii Peninsula, the institute used the Kairei to collect details about splay fault branching of the continental plate at its boundary with the subducting ocean-side Philippine Plate. A number of previously unknown undersea fault lines were discovered. And using the deep-sea drilling vessel Chikyu, the institute drilled more than 10 times in the Kumano Nada waters to a depth of nearly 1,600m, piercing directly into faults and obtaining core samples. In these samples the fault surfaces were clearly visible, and by dating the rock above and below the fault the institute was able to determine that the fault first became active 2 million years ago. Analysis of the samples also yielded information about the internal pressures and temperatures to which the plate has been subjected. The institute was making progress in these studies when the March 11 earthquake struck. "The earthquake hit just when we were beginning to get a handle on the mysteries of the fault zone," said IFREE Research Director Mitsuhiro Toriumi, who was saddened by the turn of events. But IFREE wasted no time dispatching the Kairei to the epicentral area of the earthquake to conduct soundings from March 15-31. Back to Tohoku When that data were compared with the survey results from 1999, the institute determined that the plate in the vicinity of the hypocenter had moved southeastward by approximately 50m. "In just one earthquake event the crust moved so much it was discernible from the boat," recalled research scientist Toshiya Fujiwara. IFREE also conducted surveys of the region in July and August using the Shinkai 6500 and captured clear images of seabed fissures believed to have been formed by the earthquake. Now the institute is also planning to drill in the area with the Chikyu. "We hope within several years to ascertain what happened there in Tohoku. Because we are the ones with the research vessels, we naturally feel it our duty," Toriumi explained. The institute's studies will do more than help explain the earthquake mechanism: They will also help Japan prepare for the next big jolt. In the holes being drilled by the Chikyu, the institute plans to insert sensors that can be used to monitor earthquake activity. IFREE is already collecting data from strain gauges and thermometers that were successfully put inside boreholes last December. The next step is to link these and other devices to wireless transmitters so the readings can be monitored in real time. It is hoped that this can provide direct signs of earthquake activity in the plates below the ocean and allow Japan to issue earthquake and tsunami warnings sooner. The plates lie right below our feet, but they are a mystery, and the truth is that an earthquake could happen at any time without warning. But the study of plate subduction zones is only one of the research themes at IFREE. Another focus of its research is the mantle, the thick layer of the planet on which the thin crust rides. The Earth is approximately 6,400km in radius. The rocky crust layer is just 5-30km thick. The mantle, on the other hand, is some 3,000km thick and exhibits slow but complex patterns of convection flow. Other than the fact that these movements can trigger earthquakes and volcanoes, little is known still about the true nature of the mantle and its properties. Mantle-bound In the research carried out to date, analysis of variations in traveling speed of seismic waves has indirectly exposed the interior structure of the planet, and the process of crust sinking down into the mantle has been clarified in some detail. Also, the Japanese supercomputer known as the Earth Simulator has been used to model mantle convection. But it is only now that scientists can begin to seriously consider direct sampling of mantle materials. "The rocks you can collect from land and oceans are transformed substances from Earth's interior. If we can gain access to actual mantle material, we can investigate the state of these substances before any such transformation has happened," explained a hopeful Toriumi. The institute's Chikyu is presently the world's only research vessel able to pursue such studies of the mantle. The ship is equipped with a riser-drilling system that can go as deep as 7,000m straight down, below the seabed, passing through even the hard bedrock and withstand the high temperatures and pressures of the deep-Earth environment. IFREE's goal with the Chikyu is to drill down and reach the mantle in 2013. Study of the mantle samples recovered by the Chikyu promises to shed light on the cycling of water and carbon throughout the entire planet. And by analyzing the composition of mantle rocks, scientists will gain a better understanding of how the crust is formed. Chikyu means Earth in Japanese, so the research ship truly will live up to its name by helping to illuminate Earth sciences. Floating labs The IFREE research team for mantle studies includes not only scientists studying earthquakes and the deformation of the Earth's crust, but also many chemists involved in such fields as element analysis, noted Toriumi. The large deep-sea research vessels are the grand tools that enable the institute to investigate the mysteries of the Earth. But solving those mysteries also requires isotopic determinations, ultrahigh-pressure experiments and other diligent bench work in the laboratories on these ships. And that is where the staff who date back 40 years to the predecessor of JAMSTEC play such an important role. "We owe a lot to the dedicated boat technicians who have created an environment in which we can conduct challenging research," acknowledged Masataka Kinoshita, principle investigator for drilling in seismogenic layers. Research at sea is dangerous, but good results do not come from playing it safe. Safety is important, but sometimes bold decisions must be made, and that is something of which the command team for the submersible is fully aware. "They understand how precious each session at sea is and the scientists sense they're on their side," noted Kinoshita. With so many unknowns still to uncover in the deep sea and in the depths below that, the schedules for the Chikyu, the Shinkai 6500 and the rest of the IFREE research fleet are always busy..

Japan solves – expertise and political will

Ohnishi 13, assistant professor with the College of International Relations at Nihon University in Japan. He was a research fellow for the Policy Research Department at the Ocean Policy Research Foundation (OPRF), where he worked on several Arctic research projects. He was a visiting researcher at both the Barents Institute in Norway (2008–2009) and the Åland Peace Institute in Finland (2004–2005). His current research interest ranges from regional cooperation in the Nordic contexts to international politics in the Arctic. (Fujio, “East Asia-Arctic Relations: Boundary, Security, And International Politics. The Process of Formulating Japan’s Arctic Policy: From Involvement to Engagement” November 2013, http://www.cigionline.org/sites/default/files/no1a.pdf)//dodo

The impact of climate change on the Arctic and the speed at which the ice has been melting in summer seasons have been repeatedly reported by media in Japan. An incident that caused some alarm was Russia planting its national flag on the seabed of the North Pole in August 2007. One of Japan’s national newspapers reported the event as the beginning of a “resource race” (Komaki and Mizuno 2007). In short, the impact of climate change, causing rapid ice melting, also affected the Japanese policy-making community, which began looking more carefully at the Arctic. Several government ministries began making their agendas relevant to Arctic development. Intensive efforts were prompted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Faced with the increasing effects of climate change in the Arctic Ocean and their potential impact on Arctic terrestrial environments — as already observed in the repeated breaking of records of the minimum extent of the Arctic ice cap — MEXT revitalized its Arctic research programs. For example, in May 2011, the Japan Consortium for Arctic Environmental Research was founded as a platform for coordinating the Arctic research activities of Japan. In June 2011, in the course of a governmental initiative for facilitating green innovation and environmentally friendly technologies, MEXT also initiated the Green Network of Excellence, under which the five-year Arctic Climate Change Research Project was funded, managed by the NIPR and JAMSTEC. One can also see efforts by the MoFA. In line with increasing prospects for the Arctic Council as the most relevant body for Arctic governance, in April 2009, Japan’s then Senior Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs Seiko Hashimoto attended the Antarctic Treaty-Arctic Council Joint Meeting in Washington, DC, officially announcing Japan’s application for permanent observer status in the Arctic Council. Since then, the Japanese government has been attending Arctic Council meetings as an ad hoc observer. In line with its efforts, the MoFA established the Arctic Task Force in September 2010 to help identify Japanese interests in the Arctic. Through several bilateral meetings, the Japanese government requested the support of Arctic states for the approval of Japan’s application for permanent observer status to the Arctic Council. On November 6, 2012, Japan’s former Senior Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs Shuji Kira attended a meeting between the Arctic Council’s Swedish chair and the council’s observers and ad hoc observers in Stockholm, Sweden. In his statement, Vice Minister Kira asserted that Japan deserved permanent observer status because of its active contribution to the activities under the Arctic Council, and assured the council that Japan would respect the sovereignty of the member states, their sovereign rights and jurisdiction (Kira 2012). A more recent effort by the MoFA is the appointment of Masuo Nishibayashi, ambassador of cultural exchange, to be concurrently appointed in charge of Arctic affairs (MoFA 2013). As a result of these efforts, Japan was admitted as an observer to the Arctic Council’s 8th Ministerial Meeting in Kiruna, Sweden. At the meeting, Japanese Ambassador Nishibayashi said that the melting Arctic ice opened opportunities in the region for both researchers and businesses, which increased the awareness of Japanese people (Pedersen 2013). Owing mainly to the potential impact of the opening of the NSR as a commercially viable shipping route between East Asia and Europe, in August 2012, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Tourism (MLIT) set up a board in order to examine the route’s feasibility and logistics for Japanese shipping companies, including ports in the northern part of Japan. The MLIT gathers relevant information through its internal and external channels. The National Institute for Defense Studies (NIDS) also conducted work in this area. In its annual report, the NIDS explains that Japan cannot stand outside future Arctic development, and recommends that Japan build reliable relationships with the Arctic states (NIDS 2011, 83–85). Additionally, in July 2012, a non-partisan group of parliamentarians on Arctic security was formed. The chair of the group, Shinzo Abe, has now become Japan’s prime minister.

 

 

And Japan has methane hydrate stuff:

Japan solves methane hydrate drilling best Pfeifer 14 – Sylvia, January 17, Methane hydrates could be energy of future, http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/8925cbb4-7157-11e3-8f92-00144feabdc0.html#axzz37b3De4x9

Maria van der Hoeven, the IEA’s executive director, said in an interview last year: “There may be other surprises in store. For example, the methane hydrates off the coasts of Japan and Canada ... This is still at a very early stage. But shale gas was in the same position 10 year ago. So we cannot rule out that new revolutions may take place through technological developments.” Methane hydrates are deposits of natural gas trapped with water in a crystalline structure that forms at low temperatures and moderate pressures. Although estimates of the resources vary widely, experts agree they are extremely large. According to the IEA’s most recent World Energy Outlook published last autumn, even the lower estimates give resources larger “than all other natural gas resources combined”. Many estimates fall between 1,000tn and 5,000tn cubic metres, or between 300 and 1,500 years of production at current rates. The US Geological Survey estimates that gas hydrates worldwide are between 10 to 100 times as plentiful as US shale gas reserves. However, although several governments have investigated methane hydrates since the early 1980s, no country has been especially focused on developing them. Exploiting them has to make sense from a cost perspective. There have also been other sources of fossil fuels – notably conventional oil and gas and more recently shale – that have been easier and cheaper to access. Things changed early last year. In March, Japan became the first country to get gas flowing successfully from methane hydrate deposits under the Pacific Ocean. The country has a big reason to pursue methane hydrates. After shutting down most of its nuclear power stations three years ago after the crisis at its Fukushima nuclear plants, the country has relied on expensive imports of liquefied natural gas from countries such as Qatar. Before the Fukushima disaster, nuclear provided about 30 per cent of Japan’s power generation, compared with LNG at 25 per cent. Since that time, LNG’s share has soared to 45 per cent. The increasing energy imports have helped drive the country’s trade balance into deficit. According to Paul Duerloo, partner and managing director at Boston Consulting Group in Japan, the country tops the list of those with an incentive to develop their methane hydrate deposits. Japan, he says, is paying about $15 per million British thermal units (mBTU), compared with the US Henry Hub price of just $4-$5.5 per mBTU and a price of well below $10 per mBTU in Europe. The country, adds Mr Duerloo, has few alternatives in terms of energy sources and is keen to become self-sufficient. The resource could be enormous. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, the state oil group, estimated in 2008 that 1.1tn cubic metres of methane hydrates lay beneath the eastern Nankai Trough, enough to offset at least a decade’s worth of foreign gas imports. Even so, huge challenges remain before natural gas can be produced from these reserves and the relevant extraction technology is still in its infancy. Hydrates form under high pressure caused by the weight of the seawater or rock above them. That pressure needs to be maintained when the sediment cores are analysed or else the hydrates within quickly dissociate into water and gas. There are also concerns about what the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, could do to the atmosphere. To extract the gas last March, the Japanese team used conventional methods. These involved first lowering a drill about 1,000m to the bottom of the Nankai Trough. They then had to drill another 300m into the rock, drain the water out of the hydrate layer to lower the pressure in the deposit and free the methane gas which was then pumped to the surface. Nevertheless, more work needs to be done. Researchers in Japan hope to develop production technology that achieves controlled release of the methane from the ice into the production well, thereby minimising the risk of gas escaping into the atmosphere. According to the IEA, “the longer-term role of methane hydrates will depend on climate change policies as well as technological advances, as meeting ambitious goals to reduce emissions could require a reduction in demand from all fossil fuels, certainly in the longer term”. Japan has set itself the target of bringing methane hydrates into the mainstream by the early 2020s. Despite the significant challenges, Mr Duerloo believes the world should not underestimate its dedication, inventiveness and willingness. “I think the chances they pull it off are more than half.”

Edited by totalnoob

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https://www.dropbox.com/s/bfy8508p4o0cokq/a2%20Royal%2010'.docx?dl=0

 

I don't know if this will really help that much, but we read it against Royal 10' because it talks about the diversionary theory.

 

Problem is that there are about 5 other different theoretical justifications given aside from diversionary theory, which is why something like Dresner 14 would be better because you can say that empirics disproves the theories. Also, Royal doesn't actually go one way or the other necessarily, there's a part where he says economic decline doesn't lead to war. It reads more like a lit review than something meant to argue that point (which makes sense because his paper is about Globalization and war more than decline and war).

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Problem is that there are about 5 other different theoretical justifications given aside from diversionary theory, which is why something like Dresner 14 would be better because you can say that empirics disproves the theories. Also, Royal doesn't actually go one way or the other necessarily, there's a part where he says economic decline doesn't lead to war. It reads more like a lit review than something meant to argue that point (which makes sense because his paper is about Globalization and war more than decline and war).

Where does Royal say decline doesn't cause war?  I know he rejects costly signaling theory, but I had been under the impression he thought the question of war was fairly settled.

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Where does Royal say decline doesn't cause war?  I know he rejects costly signaling theory, but I had been under the impression he thought the question of war was fairly settled.

Nobody's really sure what he says considering Royal '11 gives examples of economic growth leading to more military force.

 

I really don't get that guy.

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Where does Royal say decline doesn't cause war?  I know he rejects costly signaling theory, but I had been under the impression he thought the question of war was fairly settled.

Royal concludes neg

Royal 10 (Jedediah Royal, Director of Cooperative Threat Reduction at the U.S. Department of Defense, 2010, “Economic Integration, Economic Signaling and the Problem of Economic Crises,” in Economics of War and Peace: Economic, Legal and Political Perspectives, ed. Goldsmith and Brauer)

CONCLUSION The logic of ECST supports arguments for greater economic interdependence to reduce the likelihood of conflict. This chapter does not argue against the utility of signalling theory. It does, however, suggest that when considering the occurrence of and conditions created by economic crises, ECST logic is dubious as an organising principle for security policymakers. The discussion pulls together some distinct areas of research that have not yet featured prominently in the ECST literature. Studies associating economic interdependence, economic crises and the potential for external conflict indicate that global interdependence is not necessarily a conflict suppressing process and may be conflict-enhancing at certain points. Furthermore, the conditions created by economic crises decrease the willingness of states to send economic costly signals, even though such signals may be most effective during an economic crisis. These two points warrant further consideration in the debate over ECST and, more broadly, theories linking interdependence and peace. The debate takes on particular importance for policymakers when considering the increasingly important US-China relationship and the long-term prospects for peace in the Asia-Pacific. Recent US policy towards China, such as the ‘responsible stakeholder’ approach, assumes that greater interdependence with China should decrease the likelihood for conflict. Some have even suggested that the economic relationship is necessary to ensure strategic competition does not lead to major war (see, e.g., Kastner, 2006). If US or Chinese policymakers do indeed intend to rely on economic interdependence to reduce the likelihood of conflict, much more study is required to understand how and when interdependence impacts the security and the defence behaviour of states. This chapter contributes some thoughts to that larger debate. NOTES I. Notable counterarguments include Barbieri (1996). Gowa (I994), and Levy and Ali I998 . 2.‘ Offi<):ial statements have focused on this explanation as well. See, for example, Bernanke (2009). 3. For a dissenting study. see Elbadawi and Hegre (2008). 4. Note that Skaperdas and Syropoulos (2001) argue that states will have a greater incentive to arm against those with which it is interdependent to hedge against coercion. This argument could be extended to include protectionism in extreme cases. Creseenzi (2005) both challenges and agrees with Copeland’s theory by suggesting that a more important indicator is the exit costs involved in terminating an economic relationship. which could be a function of the availability of alternatives. 5. There is also substantial research to indicate that periods of strong economic growth are also positively correlated with a rise in the likelihood of conflict. Pollins (2008) and Pollins and Schweller (I999) provide excellent insights into this body of literature.

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They claim shipping and methane hydrates. For shipping they read Royal as their impact and methane hydrates they harp on about the permian extinction. It's literally the michigan 7 week file

ddev it -- environment can ALWAYS be more easily solved by a collapse in the economy. T and DDev was my strat against this aff twice and it worked both times. 

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ddev it -- environment can ALWAYS be more easily solved by a collapse in the economy. T and DDev was my strat against this aff twice and it worked both times. 

 

Hey all,

 

I'm looking for good Arctic mapping off case positions--preferably no K's because I don't debate in the ideal league for them. I was thinking Russia SOI and some actor counterplan...maybe Norway? 

 

Thanks!

I don't think the judges in carlaramazan's circuit would be big fans of dedev...

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I don't think the judges in carlaramazan's circuit would be big fans of dedev...

uh I mean not necessarily. I've had judges who hate ks and love ddev. I see what you mean though but a district that's "no Ks" doesn't always mean lay.

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Russia Sphere of influence - newest evidence indicates that Russia is building an Artic war fleet like Arctic fighters, bombers, nuclear aircraft carriers, etc. - if we map it, Russia will get aggressive and full out go to war with the U.S.

Extracting methane hydrates bad - they release methane into the atmosphere, 20x more potent than CO2, and cause 1000 ppm global warming that will kill us all

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whats wrong with Malthus its kinda wrong in some aspects but the overall theories kinda chill

It's empirically denied for over two centuries and implies genocide good, neither of which are things you want to defend.

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It's empirically denied for over two centuries and implies genocide good, neither of which are things you want to defend.

But I get weekly malthus updates from the trollsday file so that solves the uniqueness problem 

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