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T - Oceans

 

1. Interpretation - Oceans is plural in the resolution, there is no counter-interpretation.

 

2. Violation - The Affirmative only increases development or exploration in one of the oceans on the Earth, not a plural amount like the resolution mandates. 

 

3. Standards

 

A. Ground - The negative loses out on global biodiversity loss DA links and this destroys clash and fairness in round. 

 

B. Limits - The Affirmative severely limits the resolution and explode the negative research burden because it makes us prep for every geographical location within every ocean. 

 

C. MPX Calculus -  The affirmative can just argue that our links to their one ocean are slippery slope and spike out of any environmental DAs that we run, destroying the potential probability and magnitude the negative can obtain. 

 

4. Vote the affirmative down for fairness and education.

Counter interp: there is only one ocean

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Counter interp: there is only one ocean

 

Counter-counter interp: You must realize the fundamental truth: there is no ocean.

 

*Runs Baudrillard*?

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When I first read the topic, I got the impression that you had to be in all of the oceans because the resolution called for exploration/development of 'Earth's oceans'. (All of the oceans that the Earth has) 

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Why would you need to act on multiple oceans? The topic is simply saying to develop the collective subject 'Earth's oceans'.

Officer Tom is the only person in this thread that understands grammar. Oceans is a collective noun and the object of the resolution. The"s" on oceans doesn't change the "how" but the "what" the usfg is acting on.

 

Topical action has to be exploration and or development of the Earth's oceans. There is no more textual precision beyond that. It doesn't matter what the Earth's ocean as long as Oceans are involved. Demanding specification or a specific number of Oceans is the same logic behind aspec.

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Officer Tom is the only person in this thread that understands grammar. Oceans is a collective noun and the object of the resolution. The"s" on oceans doesn't change the "how" but the "what" the usfg is acting on.

 

Topical action has to be exploration and or development of the Earth's oceans. There is no more textual precision beyond that. It doesn't matter what the Earth's ocean as long as Oceans are involved. Demanding specification or a specific number of Oceans is the same logic behind aspec.

 

Yes. 

Also I'd argue you should prefer oceans as a collective (or the interp that there is only one ocean) because it allows substantive debate instead of risking debates on whether or not the plan crosses ocean boundaries or not and etc

NOS 1/23/14 (National Ocean Service, Ocean Facts: There is Only One Global Ocean, http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/howmanyoceans.html)

While there is only one global ocean, the vast body of water that covers 71 percent of the Earth is geographically divided into distinct named regions. The boundaries between these regions have evolved over time for a variety of historical, cultural, geographical, and scientific reasons.¶ Historically, there are four named oceans: the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Arctic. However, most countries—including the United States—now recognize the Southern (Antarctic) as the fifth ocean. The Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian are known as the three major oceans.¶ The Southern Ocean is the 'newest' named ocean. It is recognized by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names as the body of water extending from the coast of Antarctica to the line of latitude at 60 degrees South. The boundaries of this ocean were proposed tothe International Hydrographic Organization in 2000. However, not all countries agree on the proposed boundaries, so this has yet to be ratified by members of the IHO. The U.S. is a member of the IHO, represented by the NOS Office of Coast Survey.¶

Edited by vend3tta

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Here is T on exploration

 

Exploration is the base for further study.

NOAA 2000 [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Ocean Exploration Panel, August 2000, http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/oceanography/ocean-exploration/ CR]

As defined by the President's Panel on Ocean Exploration (NOAA, 2000), exploration is discovery through disciplined, diverse observations and the recording of findings. Exploration is an early component of the research process; it focuses on new areas of inquiry and develops descriptions of phenomena that inform the direction of further study.

 

Exploration includes observations and documentations.

The National Academies 2000 [The National Academies 2000: Advisers to the Nation on science, Engineering, and Medicine, “Ocean Explorationâ€pg. 13, Ocean Science Series, http://dels.nas.edu/resources/static-assets/osb/miscellaneous/exploration_final.pdf CR]

As defined by the President’s Panel on Ocean Exploration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2000), ocean exploration is discovery through disciplined, diverse observations and recordings of findings. It includes rigorous, systematic observations and documentation of biological, chemical, physical, geological, and archaeological aspects of the ocean in the three dimensions of space and time. 

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Here is T on exploration

 

Exploration is the base for further study.

NOAA 2000 [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Ocean Exploration Panel, August 2000, http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/oceanography/ocean-exploration/ CR]

As defined by the President's Panel on Ocean Exploration (NOAA, 2000), exploration is discovery through disciplined, diverse observations and the recording of findings. Exploration is an early component of the research process; it focuses on new areas of inquiry and develops descriptions of phenomena that inform the direction of further study.

 

Exploration includes observations and documentations.

The National Academies 2000 [The National Academies 2000: Advisers to the Nation on science, Engineering, and Medicine, “Ocean Explorationâ€pg. 13, Ocean Science Series, http://dels.nas.edu/resources/static-assets/osb/miscellaneous/exploration_final.pdf CR]

As defined by the President’s Panel on Ocean Exploration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2000), ocean exploration is discovery through disciplined, diverse observations and recordings of findings. It includes rigorous, systematic observations and documentation of biological, chemical, physical, geological, and archaeological aspects of the ocean in the three dimensions of space and time. 

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