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I'm trying to write a Mexico NanoTech scenario, but I don't really know what NT advantages typically look like. Can you either link me to some Mexico specific NT advantages / cards, or atleast US NT?

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Leadership is necessary – falling behind in quantum encryption leads to cyber attacks

Shay 10 (Christopher, Time Correspondent, “ China's Great (Quantum) Leap Forward,† Sep. 09, 2010, Time.com, http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2016687,00.html)

The advance in secure communications comes none too soon. With ever-increasing computing power, the expiration date on today's cryptography techniques could be looming, Luce says. Right now, breaking modern encryption techniques require such computing power that one can change the code long before a computer has time to crack it. But "it's become very difficult to 'future proof' the encryption of data," Luce writes for the Jamestown Foundation. Tomorrow's computers will improve and data could suddenly become unprotected, while quantum teleportation, he says, "has a seemingly infinite time horizon." Though the Chinese scientists claim in their peer-reviewed paper that this experiment communicated quantum information more than 20 times farther than previous tests over open space, this may not be entirely true. According to Luce in 2005, a group of universities along with defense corporations with a grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) transferred quantum information over 23 km (14 miles) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Though Luce writes that a few differences in the DARPA project "may not technically disqualify the Chinese" from their claims, it's clear the U.S. military is also investing in this technology. Luce says it's difficult to know how far the U.S. is in developing quantum teleportation, "because a lot of the U.S. work is classified." Of course, what's possible in theory — perfectly secure communication — is different from what will happen in practice. Luce suspects China's pioneering research in this technology is as much an attempt to find weaknesses in a possible U.S. quantum security network as it is to develop its own. Roy of the East-West Center says one of China's "pockets of excellence" is its cyber-warfare capability. If developed by the U.S., however, this technology could help neutralize China's ability to break into sensitive computer systems. Less than two weeks ago, researchers from Germany and Norway claim to have hacked a commercial quantum cryptography system by exploiting flaws in its detection equipment. It doesn't undermine the fundamental principle of secure quantum messaging, but it is a reminder that there is almost always a loophole. "The security of quantum cryptography relies on quantum physics but not only," Gerd Leuchs, a professor at the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, says in a press release announcing the vulnerabilities. "It must also be properly implemented." No one claims that the Chinese military will surpass the U.S.' anytime soon, but it isn't just dueling naval exercises that will determine pecking order. It's also how fast China can integrate the newest technologies into its military, maintaining its strengths like cyber-warfare while improving the PLA's precision, coordination and secrecy. In these ways, China has made a quantum leap forward.

Nano key to quantum encryption

Koenig 2k8 (Kelly, consultant with CSC's Global Business Solutions. extensive experience in business architecture, risk mitigation and process improvement solutions, master’s degree from Northwestern University (joint program with Kellogg School of Management and McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science. December 2008, “ Bleeding Edge: Nanotechnological Applications In Quantum Cryptography)

After considering the physical limits of today’s technology and the energy needs we face today, we’re witnessing products coming to market that have already begun to exploit the potential of nanotechnology. However, the full potential that can be expected from advanced research investment in nanotechnology has not yet reached the market – it has only begun to scratch the surface. A nanotechnological solution such as quantum cryptography is a leading force in a strong wave of nanotechnologies based on completely new properties relatively unacknowledged by the mainstream. Quantum cryptography is a powerful solution to today’s security issues. It has already proven to be a successful and in-demand security solution, and it represents an enormous potential for market capture. It’s an innovation that promises to revolutionize the entire IT industry over the next two decades. Learning the principles behind quantum cryptography provides value for the next generation of nanotechnologies coming through the pipeline. It is important to educate and engage people of all backgrounds, both business and technical, in order to open a dialogue for future collaborations. Such collaborations ensure that the benefits of nanotechnology will be realized.

 

Nanotech is key to carbon-clean up and pollution monitoring

Zhao ’12 (Jingna Zhao, Biology Major from Universtity of Darthmouth, Published for the Dartmouth Daily published in 2012, Turning to Nanotechnology for Pollution Control: Applications of Nanoparticles, http://dujs.dartmouth.edu/winter-2009/turning-to-nanotechnology-for-pollution-control-applications-of-nanoparticles#.Ufhns42Thsl)

Air pollution can be remediated using nanotechnology in several ways. One is through the use of nano-catalysts with increased surface area for gaseous reactions. Catalysts work by speeding up chemical reactions that transform harmful vapors from cars and industrial plants into harmless gases. Catalysts currently in use include a nanofiber catalyst made of manganese oxide that removes volatile organic compounds from industrial smokestacks (4). Other methods are still in development. Another approach uses nanostructured membranes that have pores small enough to separate methane or carbon dioxide from exhaust (5). John Zhu of the University of Queensland is researching carbon nanotubes (CNT) for trapping greenhouse gas emissions caused by coal mining and power generation. CNT can trap gases up to a hundred times faster than other methods, allowing integration into large-scale industrial plants and power stations. This new technology both processes and separates large volumes of gas effectively, unlike conventional membranes that can only do one or the other effectively. For his work, Zhu received an $85,000 Foundation Research Excellence Award. Nanotechnology’s potential and promise have steadily been growing throughout the years. The world is quickly accepting and adapting to this new addition to the scientific toolbox. Although there are many obstacles to overcome in implementing this technology for common usage, science is constantly refining, developing, and making breakthroughs.

 

Something like this?

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Thanks, that's helpful, but are there any bigger terminal impacts for nanotech? I've never really looked at an advantage for it before...

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woah. I actually wrote an entire 1ac for a nanotech collab with Mexico that I'm not using because I'm reading a different aff. However, I'm down to trade it. PM me 

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Thanks, that's helpful, but are there any bigger terminal impacts for nanotech? I've never really looked at an advantage for it before...

Nanotech is inevitable --- U.S. leadership is key to stable development --- checks gray goo, super-weapons, and eco-collapse

Dennis 6 (Lindsay V., JD Candidate – Temple University School of Law, “Nanotechnology: Unique Science Requires Unique Solutionsâ€, Temple Journal of Science, Technology & Environmental Law, Spring, 25 Temp. J. Sci. Tech. & Envtl. L. 87, Lexis)

 

Nanotechnology, a newly developing field merging science and technology, promises a future of open-ended potential. 6 Its scientific limits are unknown, and its myriad uses cross the boundaries of the technical, mechanical and medical fields. 7 Substantial research 8 has led scientists, 9 politicians 10 and academicians 11 to believe that nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change the economy and to improve the national standard of living. 12 In addition, nanotechnology may touch every facet of human life because its products cross the boundaries of the most important industries, including electronics, biomedical and pharmaceutical [*89] industries, and energy production. 13 In the future, nanotechnology could ensure longer, healthier lives with the reduction or elimination of life-threatening diseases, 14 a cleaner planet with pollution remediation and emission-free energy, 15 and the innumerable benefits of increased information technology. 16 However, certain uses, such as advanced drug delivery systems, 17 have given rise to an ethical debate similar to that surrounding cloning and stem cell research. 18 Moreover, some analysts have theorized that nanotechnology may endanger humankind with more dangerous warfare and weapons of terrorism, 19 and that nanotechnology may lead to artificial intelligence beyond human control. 20 The widespread use of nanotechnology far in the future threatens to alter the societal framework and create what has been called "gray goo." 21 Because nanotechnology has the potential to improve the products that most of us rely on in our daily lives, but also imperil society as we know it, we should research, monitor and regulate nanotechnology for the public good with trustworthy systems, and set up pervasive controls over its research, development, and deployment. In addition, its substantial impacts on existing regulations should be ascertained, and solutions incorporated into the regulatory framework. This paper addresses these concerns and provides potential solutions. Part I outlines the development of nanotechnology. Parts II and III explore the current and theoretical future applications of nanotechnology, and its potential side-effects. Then, Part IV analyzes the government's current role in monitoring nanotechnology, and the regulatory mechanisms available to manage or eliminate the negative implications of nanotechnology. Part V considers the creation of an Emerging Technologies Department as a possible solution to maximize the benefits and minimize the detrimental effects of nanotechnology. Lastly, Part VI examines certain environmental regulations to provide an example of nanotechnology's impact on existing regulatory schema. [*90] Part I: Nanotechnology Defined Nanoscience is the study of the fundamental principles of molecules and structures with at least one dimension roughly between 1 and 100 nanometers (one-billionth of a meter, or 10[su'-9']), otherwise known as the "nanoscale." 22 Called nanostructures, these are the smallest solid things possible to make. 23 Nanofabrication, or nanoscale manufacturing, is the process by which nanostructures are built. 24 Top-down nanofabrication creates nanostructures by taking a large structure and making it smaller, whereas bottom-up nanofabrication starts with individual atoms to build nanostructures. 25 Nanotechnology applies nanostructures into useful nanoscale devices. 26 The nanoscale is distinctive because it is the size scale where the properties of materials like conductivity, 27 hardness, 28 or melting point 29 are no longer similar to the properties of these same materials at the macro level. 30 Atom interactions, averaged out of existence in bulk material, give rise to unique properties. 31 In [*91] nanotech research, scientists take advantage of these unique properties to develop products with applications that would not otherwise be available. 32 Although some products using nanotechnology are currently on the market, 33 nanotechnology is primarily in the research and development stage. 34 Because nanoparticles are remarkably small, tools specific to nanotechnology have been created to develop useful nanostructures and devices. 35 Two techniques exclusive to nanotechnology are self-assembly, and nanofabrication using nanotubes and nanorods. 36 [*92] In self-assembly, particular atoms or molecules are put on a surface or preconstructed nanostructure, causing the molecules to align themselves into particular positions. 37 Although self-assembly is "probably the most important of the nanoscale fabrication techniques because of its generality, its ability to produce structures at different length-scales, and its low cost," 38 most nanostructures are built starting with larger molecules as components. 39 Nanotubes 40 and nanorods, 41 the first true nanomaterials engineered at the molecular level, are two examples of these building blocks. 42 They exhibit astounding physical and electrical properties. 43 Certain nanotubes have tensile strength in excess of 60 times high-grade steel while remaining light and flexible. 44 Currently, nanotubes are used in tennis rackets and golf clubs to make them lighter and stronger. 45 Part II: Nanotechnology's Uses Researching and manipulating the properties of nanostructures are important for a number of reasons, including, most basically, to gain an understanding of how matter is constructed, and more practically, to use these unique properties to develop unique products. 46 Nanoproducts can be divided into four general categories: 47 smart materials, 48 sensors, 49 biomedical applications, 50 and optics and electronics. 51 [*93] A "smart" material incorporates in its design a capability to perform several specific tasks. 52 In nanotechnology, that design is done at the molecular level. 53 Clothing, enhanced with nanotechnology, is a useful application of a smart material at the nanoscale. Certain nano-enhanced clothing contains fibers that have tiny whiskers that repel liquids, reduce static and resist stains without affecting feel. 54 Nano-enhanced rubber represents another application of a nanoscale smart material. 55 Tires using nanotech-components increase skid resistance by reducing friction, which reduces abrasion and makes the tires last longer. 56 The tires may be on the market "in the next few years" according to the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). 57 Theoretically, this rubber could be used on a variety of products, ranging from tires to windshield wiper blades to athletic shoes. 58 A more complex nanotechnology smart material is a photorefractive polymer. 59 Acting as a nanoscale "barcode," these polymers could be used as information storage devices with a storage density exceeding the best available magnetic storage structures. 60 Nano-sensors may "revolutionize much of the medical care and the food packaging industries," 61 as well as the environmental field because of their ability to detect toxins and pollutants at fewer than ten molecules. 62 As the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognizes: Protection of human health and ecosystems requires rapid, precise sensors capable of detecting pollutants at the molecular level. Major improvements in process control, compliance monitoring, and environmental decision-making could [*94] be achieved if more accurate, less costly, more sensitive techniques were available. Nanotechnology offers the possibility of sensors enabled to be selective or specific, detect multiple analytes, and monitor their presence in real time. 63 Examples of research in sensors include the development of nano-sensors for efficient and rapid biochemical detection of pollutants; sensors capable of continuous measurement over large areas; integration of nano-enabled sensors for real-time continuous monitoring; and sensors that utilize "lab-on-a-chip" technology. 64 All fundamental life processes occur at the nanoscale, making it the ideal scale at which to fight diseases. 65 Two quintessential examples of biomedical applications of nanotechnology are advanced drug delivery systems and nano-enhanced drugs. 66 The promise of advanced drug delivery systems lies in that they direct drug molecules only to where they are needed in the body. 67 One example is focusing chemotherapy on the site of the tumor, instead of the whole body, thereby improving the drug's effectiveness while decreasing its unpleasant side-effects. 68 Other researchers are working to develop nanoparticles that target and trick cancer cells into absorbing certain nanoparticles. 69 These nanoparticles would then kill tumors from within, avoiding the destruction of healthy cells, as opposed to the indiscriminate damage caused by traditional chemotherapy. 70 Nano-enhanced suicide inhibitors 71 limit enzymatic activity by forcing naturally occurring enzymes to form bonds with the nanostructured molecule. 72 This may treat conditions such as epilepsy and depression because of the enzyme action component involved in these conditions. 73 Lastly, nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the electronics and optics fields. 74 For instance, nanotechnology has the potential to produce clean, [*95] renewable solar power. 75 Through a process called artificial photosynthesis, solar energy is produced by using nanostructures based on molecules which capture light and separate positive and negative charges. 76 Certain Swiss watches and bathroom scales are illuminated through a nanotech procedure that transforms captured sunlight into an electrical current. 77 In the electronics field, nanostructures offer many different ways to increase memory storage by substantially reducing the size of memory bits and thereby increasing the density of magnetic memory, increasing efficiency, and decreasing cost. 78 One example is storing memory bits as magnetic nanodots, which can be reduced in size until they reach the super-paramagnetic limit, the smallest possible magnetic memory structure. 79 Advances in electronics and computing brought on by nanotechnology could allow reconfigurable, "thinking" spacecraft. 80 Some uses of nano-products already on the market include suntan lotions and skin creams, tennis balls that bounce longer, faster-burning rocket fuel additives, and new cancer treatments. 81 Solar cells in roofing tiles and siding that provide electricity for homes and facilities, and the prototypic tires, supra, may be on the market in the next few years. 82 The industry expects advanced drug delivery systems with implantable devices that automatically administer drugs and sensor drug levels, and medical diagnostic tools such as cancer-tagging mechanisms to be on the market in the next two to five years. 83 It is nearly impossible to foresee what developments to expect in nanotechnology in the decades to come. 84 Nonetheless, the book Engines of Creation presented one vision of the possibilities of advanced nanotechnology. 85 Nano-machines could be designed to construct any product, from mundane items such as a chair, to exciting items such as a rocket engine. 86 These "assemblers" could also be programmed to build copies of themselves. 87 Known as "replicators," these nano-machines could alter the world by producing an exponential quantity of themselves that are to be put to work as assemblers. 88 The development of assemblers could advance the space [*96] exploration program, 89 biomedical field, 90 and even repair the damage done to the world's ecological systems. 91 Over time, production costs may sharply decrease because the assemblers will be able to construct all future products from an original blueprint at virtually no additional cost. 92 Part III: Nanotechnology's Side-Effects With the good, however, comes the bad. The "gray goo problem," the most well-known unwanted potential consequence of the spread of nanotechnology, 93 arises when replicators and assemblers produce almost anything, and subsequently spread uncontrolled, obliterating natural organisms and replacing them with nano-enhanced organisms. 94 A more foreseeable issue is environmental contamination. 95 The EPA noted As nanotechnology progresses from research and development to commercialization and use, it is likely that manufactured nanomaterials and nanoproducts will be released into the environment... . The unique features of manufactured nanomaterials and a lack of experience with these materials hinder the risk evaluation that is needed to inform decisions about pollution prevention, environmental clean-up and other control measures, including regulation. Beyond the usual concerns for most toxic materials ... the adequacy of current toxicity tests for chemicals needs to be assessed ... . To the extent that nanoparticles [*97] ... elicit novel biological responses, these concerns need to be accounted for in toxicity testing to provide relevant information needed for risk assessment to inform decision making. 96 In addition, nanotechnology could change the face of global warfare and terrorism. 97 Assemblers could be used to duplicate existing weapons out of superior materials, and chemical and biological weapons could be created with nano-enhanced components. 98 Modern detection systems would be inadequate to detect nano-enhanced weapons built with innocuous materials such as carbon. 99 Luckily, nanotechnology offers responses to these problems, and researchers are already tackling these issues. 100 "Labs-on-a-chip," a sensor system the size of a microchip, could be woven into soldiers' uniforms to detect toxins immediately. 101 Adding smart materials could make soldiers' uniforms resistant to certain chemical and biological agents. 102 Nanotechnology also enhances threats against citizens. Drugs and bugs (electronic surveillance devices) could be used by police states to monitor and control its citizenry. 103 Viruses could be created that target specific genetic characteristics. 104 Not only is the development of technologically advanced, devastating weaponry itself a hazardous effect of nanotechnology, but also, millions of dollars have already been spent researching potential uses of nanotechnology in the military sphere, 105 thus diverting funds from more beneficial uses such as biomedical applications and clean energy. However, these negative effects are not inevitable. By analyzing the scope of potential drawbacks accompanying these research investments, lawmakers can institute regulatory controls that could mitigate these problems. [*98] Part IV: Maximizing Benefits, Minimizing Catastrophe To minimize or eliminate the problems associated with nanotechnology, while maximizing the beneficial effects, nanotechnology research and development should be monitored and regulated by "trustworthy systems." 106 Currently, the federal government oversees a massive funding and research program with the purpose of "ensuring United States global leadership in the development and application of nanotechnology." 107 Nonetheless, as nanotechnology becomes more prevalent, more thorough regulation may be necessary. 108 Nanotechnology may greatly impact some of the largest revenue producing industries in the United States, such as the pharmaceutical and medical fields, utilities and power generation, and computer electronics. 109 Thus, it is clear that nanotechnology will likely touch every facet of human life. In addition, these powerful industries have been known to promote profits over human safety, 110 one of the reasons for their stringent regulation. [*99] The federal government must regulate nanotechnology for the public good as it pertains to these industries. The form and scope of the trustworthy systems are being debated. 111 Each system has its advantages and disadvantages. 112 The system should be accountable to judicial review and public comment, as well as transparent, 113 while minimizing "the traditional laments of the bureaucratic agency: lack of efficiency, duplication of effort, and subjection to Congressional and judicial requirements in enacting regulations." 114 Certain proposals are outlined briefly in this article as examples of what can be done to regulate nanotechnology.

Each scenario causes extinction

Bostrom 2 (Nice, Ph.D, Professor – Oxford University, and Winner – Eugene R. Gannon Award for the Continued Pursuit of Human Advancement, “Existential Risks Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios and Related Hazardsâ€, Journal of Evolution and Technology, 9, March, http://www.nickbostrom.com/existential/risks.html)

 

In a mature form, molecular nanotechnology will enable the construction of bacterium-scale self-replicating mechanical robots that can feed on dirt or other organic matter [22-25]. Such replicators could eat up the biosphere or destroy it by other means such as by poisoning it, burning it, or blocking out sunlight. A person of malicious intent in possession of this technology might cause the extinction of intelligent life on Earth by releasing such nanobots into the environment.[9] The technology to produce a destructive nanobot seems considerably easier to develop than the technology to create an effective defense against such an attack (a global nanotech immune system, an “active shield†[23]). It is therefore likely that there will be a period of vulnerability during which this technology must be prevented from coming into the wrong hands. Yet the technology could prove hard to regulate, since it doesn’t require rare radioactive isotopes or large, easily identifiable manufacturing plants, as does production of nuclear weapons [23]. Even if effective defenses against a limited nanotech attack are developed before dangerous replicators are designed and acquired by suicidal regimes or terrorists, there will still be the danger of an arms race between states possessing nanotechnology. It has been argued [26] that molecular manufacturing would lead to both arms race instability and crisis instability, to a higher degree than was the case with nuclear weapons. Arms race instability means that there would be dominant incentives for each competitor to escalate its armaments, leading to a runaway arms race. Crisis instability means that there would be dominant incentives for striking first. Two roughly balanced rivals acquiring nanotechnology would, on this view, begin a massive buildup of armaments and weapons development programs that would continue until a crisis occurs and war breaks out, potentially causing global terminal destruction. That the arms race could have been predicted is no guarantee that an international security system will be created ahead of time to prevent this disaster from happening. The nuclear arms race between the US and the USSR was predicted but occurred nevertheless.

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woah. I actually wrote an entire 1ac for a nanotech collab with Mexico that I'm not using because I'm reading a different aff. However, I'm down to trade it. PM me 

 

I'm writing a Science & Tech Co-Op with Mexico coz Science Diplomacy... but I probably don't have anything worth trading

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Thanks you! this is very useful

 

Edit: Uh-Oh!

Found this card in that file -

Vandermolen 2k6

(LCDR Thomas D. Vandermolen, USN (BS, Louisiana Tech University; MA, Naval War College), is officer in charge, Maritime Science and Technology Center, Yokosuka, Japan. He was previously assigned as a student at the Naval War College, Newport Naval Station, Rhode Island. He has also served as intelligence officer for Carrier Wing Five, Naval Air Facility, Atsugi, Japan, and in similar assignments with US Special Operations Command, US Forces Korea, and Sea Control Squadron THIRTY-FIVE, Air & Space Power Jounral,  “Molecular nanotechnology and national security, pg online @ http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj06/fal06/vandermolen.html //um-ef)

 

Tom "is officer in charge"... Am I allowed to read evidence I wrote?

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Actually here is something cool I found in the GDI Sci Coop neg file, its in terms of Cuba but I think this would be better, of course you're going to want to include reasons why nanotechnology is good. I'm sure there are tons of reasons for why it is.

Cuba is in the process of developing nanotech but lack of infrastructure, international cooperation and experts slow the process – the plan results in accelerated nanotech by 2020

Peláez 12

[Orfilio, Digital Granma Internacional, October 18, 2012, “Nanotechnology in Cuba,†http://www.granma.cu/ingles/cuba-i/18-octubre-nanotechtology.html] WD

 

NANOTECHNOLOGY, the driving force behind what many researchers see as the most important industrial development of the last 200 years, was initially developed by different branches of the military industry within a small group of highly industrialized countries, led by the United States, which had the resources to invest and the desire to maintain its position of global power. This effort, which is little discussed and currently subsumed within strategic national initiatives, had as its main objectives the miniaturization of nuclear weapons; improved armor; new camouflage techniques and more effective, lighter bullet-proof vests to protect soldiers; and medications to control bleeding and treat injuries, in order to maintain the full fighting capacity of troops in the most difficult situations. The term nanotechnology was coined in 1974 by Japanese scientist Norio Tamiguchi, using a new measurement system in which 1nm represents one millionth of a millimeter. Starting with the idea of creating new materials or changing the properties of existing ones by manipulating molecular structures at the nanometric level, the field progressively expanded into the aerospace, automobile, materials, electronics, communications, energy, health, food, environmental and cosmetics industries. Over the last few years, Cuba has entered this promising, diminutive scientific world. To learn more about its impact and prospects internationally and within the country, Granma spoke with Dr. Fidel Castro Díaz-Balart, scientific advisor to the Council of State. "Nanotechnology has eliminated barriers in a way which just a few years ago would have been considered science fiction and is today making concrete progress in the design of more efficient technology to treat water, miniaturize integrated circuits used in computers and information processing and in the development of optimal strategies to conserve energy," he said. "There are also promising results in the development of advanced diagnostic tools and new pharmaceuticals, capable of acting selectively at a specific site, making treatment more effective, with fewer side effects. Despite the results mentioned, the technology remains in the research and development stage, dominated by large U.S., European and Japanese companies." What factors have led Cuba to enter the field, despite the country’s complex economic situation and the high costs involved? The rate at which new knowledge and scientific innovations are emerging is so rapid that, if we do not now create the infrastructure needed to pursue selected goals and train experts to work in such a promising discipline, we run the risk of being irreversibly excluded from tomorrow’s world. To be competitive and achieve sustainable future development, based on our intellectual production, nanotechnology cannot be ignored, since all basic sciences converge in the field, combining increasingly advanced technologies, bio-information, bio-engineering and other branches of knowledge, which will transform industry and the provision of services in the coming decades. At the same time, Cuba has the advantage of having a broad base of scientists, engineers and highly qualified technicians in universities and research institutions, and in a network of world class institutions devoted to biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry, all located in the West Havana Scientific Complex and operating on the basis of a closed cycle concept including research, production and sales. More than 70 new products have been developed within these institutions, including monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, medical equipment, diagnostic tools and medications, some of which are unique, such as Heberprot-P and Nimotuzumab, protected as industrial property, and have had a significant impact on the improvement of public health. Thus we have much of the way forward already in place, the prior knowledge needed and many scientific accomplishments attained. It is understandable that nano-biotechnology and nano-medicine be the focal points of national efforts in this arena, given their social and economic impact, and the excellent public health system Cuba has developed. This does not mean we are turning our backs on the issues of energy, environmental studies and the related search for new materials. There are already centers such as the Molecular Immunology Center and the Immunoassay Center, which use this technology in their search for new drugs to treat cancer and to expand the number of illnesses which can be diagnosed with a blood sample using SUMA technology, respectively. How is the Cuban Center for Advanced Studies (CEAC) progressing? What training does the staff there receive? Have the opinions of entities in the Ministries of Higher Education and of Science, Technology and Environment, with experience in the use of nanotechnology, been considered? When CEAC was being conceptualized, opinions and recommendations were gathered from a group of leaders of institutions in the Scientific Complex, the University of Havana, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, to mention a few examples. It has been a collective project as a result of the participation of related actors, without any improvisation, preconceived notions or exclusions whatsoever. International experience was also taken into consideration in the design of buildings, laboratories, the equipment to install and materials to use in the different areas, through collaboration and the support offered by foreign companies with prestige, experience and know-how in the field. By 2013, the first stage of the investment process should be complete, based on the concept that it will be a multidisciplinary entity, devoted to the development of essential nano-technological applications in health care and, in an initial fashion, in the areas of environment and energy. CEAC’s staff is composed primarily of young professionals who come from different universities, ranging from 25 to 30 years of age, many of whom are currently completing their studies with their own projects, which reflect the principle lines of investigation proposed as priorities for the center by diverse institutions. Dr. Fidel Castro Díaz-Balart reported that the fusion of the Scientific Complex and the pharmaceutical industry is underway, based on the Policy Development Guidelines approved at the 6th Party Congress and the updating of Cuba’s economic model. To be created is a Central Enterprise Management Group, based on hi-tech companies with greater productivity, lower costs and better qualified personnel, capable of producing quality medications, equipment and services for the health care system and export. Given the country’s previous work and the strategic vision of a plan to develop nanotechnology in Cuba, by 2020, the country should be positioned among the nations making a contribution to nanotechnology, principally in the area of nano-biotechnology, the eminent scientist concluded.

 

Here are some turns to that scenario though:

Fast expansion of nanotech destroys the environment and mitigates its potential

Marantz 7

[Robin Marantz Henig, 9-22-2007, OnEarth, “Our silver-coated future: nanotechnology, fast becoming a three-trillion-dollar industry, is about to revolutionize our world. Unfortunately, hardly anyone is stopping to ask whether it's safe,†Lexis] WD

 

BUT BEFORE we hurtle off toward a nano-utopia, we need to step back and ask ourselves whether this is a direction in which we really want to go.  When an industry grows this quickly, there may be neither the time nor the inclination to ask some tough questions about possible risks. First of all, there are the health and environmental hazards. Would nanotechnology bring unacceptable risks to workers making these materials or consumers who use the final products? Would it affect air orwater quality near where the nanomaterials are dispersed? Very little is known about nanotoxicology, which might be very different from the toxicology of the same materials at normal scale (see "Smaller Is Weirder," page 28).  Then there are the social, even existential, consequences. If the hype about nanotechnology contains even a smattering of truth, the technique could shake up our most basic assumptions about our place in the universe, turning us from its residents to the architects of its most fundamental elements. Might that act of hubris somehow subvert us as a species?  As nanotechnology explodes, and as federal agencies wrangle over whose responsibility it is to deal with an essentially unregulated industry, it's all the more crucial to take stock of the emerging field as soon as possible.  "This is not a technology we want to say no to out of hand," says Jennifer Sass, a senior scientist at the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). "I think this is a technology that is potentially transformative, but we want to use it in a way to take advantage of that while reducing the risk."  Maynard sees this moment as a crossroads for nanotechnology. "What concerns me," he says, "is that if we're not smart about this we'll get something wrong, which would cause unnecessary damage to the environment or to people and would undermine the potential of all nanotechnology."

 

Accelerated nanotech causes extinction and all-out war – mature versions will be unstable and defense shields will take more time to build

Bostrom 2

[Nick, PhD Faculty of Philosophy Oxford University, March 2002, Journal of Evolution and Technology, Volume 9, “Existential Risks,†http://www.nickbostrom.com/existential/risks.html] WD

 

In a mature form, molecular nanotechnology will enable the construction of bacterium-scale self-replicating mechanical robots that can feed on dirt or other organic matter [22-25]. Such replicators could eat up the biosphere or destroy it by other means such as by poisoning it, burning it, or blocking out sunlight. A person of malicious intent in possession of this technology might cause the extinction of intelligent life on Earth by releasing such nanobots into the environment.[9]

The technology to produce a destructive nanobot seems considerably easier to develop than the technology to create an effective defense against such an attack (a global nanotech immune system, an “active shield†[23]). It is therefore likely that there will be a period of vulnerability during which this technology must be prevented from coming into the wrong hands. Yet the technology could prove hard to regulate, since it doesn’t require rare radioactive isotopes or large, easily identifiable manufacturing plants, as does production of nuclear weapons [23].

Even if effective defenses against a limited nanotech attack are developed before dangerous replicators are designed and acquired by suicidal regimes or terrorists, there will still be the danger of an arms race between states possessing nanotechnology. It has been argued [26] that molecular manufacturing would lead to both arms race instability and crisis instability, to a higher degree than was the case with nuclear weapons. Arms race instability means that there would be dominant incentives for each competitor to escalate its armaments, leading to a runaway arms race. Crisis instability means that there would be dominant incentives for striking first. Two roughly balanced rivals acquiring nanotechnology would, on this view, begin a massive buildup of armaments and weapons development programs that would continue until a crisis occurs and war breaks out, potentially causing global terminal destruction. That the arms race could have been predicted is no guarantee that an international security system will be created ahead of time to prevent this disaster from happening. The nuclear arms race between the US and the USSR was predicted but occurred nevertheless.

Immature and accelerated nanotech will cause global nanowars – this outweighs and turns all offense – only gradual development of nanotech can access its immense benefits

Treder and Phoenix 6

[Mike, co-founder of CRN, is now serving as Managing Director of the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies, Chris, co-founder and Director of Research, Center for Responsible Nanotechnology, has studied nanotechnology for more than 20 years. He obtained his BS in Symbolic Systems and MS in Computer Science from Stanford University in 1991. From 1991 to 1997, he worked as an embedded software engineer at Electronics for Imaging. In 1997, he left the software field to concentrate on dyslexia correction and research. Since 2000 he has focused on studying and writing about molecular manufacturing. Chris is a published author in nanotechnology and nanomedical research, and maintains close contacts with many leading researchers in the field, “Nanotechnology and Future WMD,†Dec., http://www.crnano.org/Paper-FutureWMD.htm] WD

 

A New Weapons Race A nanofactory that could build high-performance products directly from blueprints in a few hours would have many applications. One obvious product family is weapons, including weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). Higher strength, power density, and functional density would improve a number of existing weapon designs. It would also enable new classes of weapons. For example, UAV’s in a wide range of sizes could perform surveillance, sabotage, or antipersonnel missions far beyond what is currently contemplated. It appears that “briefcase to orbit†systems will be possible. A small automated airplane (Helios) has been flown up to 96,000 feet. Even a small rocket should be able to attain orbit from that altitude, and a small aircraft should be able to lift it. Initial calculations suggest that the advantages of diamondoid construction would enable a human-portable system, built by a home-appliance scale nanofactory, to put a kilogram of payload into orbit. The advantages of inexpensive rapid prototyping of complete products should not be underestimated. The development cycle of field-programmable computer chips can be up to two orders of magnitude faster than that of factory-programmed computer chips; product development cycles might speed up similarly. For a number of reasons, a nanofactory-enabled arms race appears less stable than was the US-Soviet nuclear arms race. Rapid development of new types of weapons may outstrip the capacity of strategists to plan for stability. Temporary asymmetries caused by rapid development may tempt first strikes. The wide range of military and paramilitary options may create many pathways for gradual escalation to conflagration. Destruction caused by nanotech-based weapons could be more targeted and contained than nuclear explosions. Likewise, there may be less stigma attached to nano-built weapons. Nanofactory availability is likely to be far more rapid and widespread than nuclear proliferation. Uncertainty about the enemy’s capabilities, as well as increased ability to deploy surveillance, may be stabilizing factors, but on balance the outlook for stability seems poor. All-out war could be extremely destructive. With distributed, easily concealed nanofactories, it would not be easy to destroy an enemy’s ability to fight. It would be far easier to destroy things of sentimental value, such as civilian resources – and civilians themselves. Preliminary thought about the number of modes of attack, concealment, and space/time separation between launch and attack makes the task of defending civilians appear hopeless, even if the enemy is far weaker than oneself. A mentality that welcomed martyrdom would appear to be at a distinct advantage against a nation unwilling to commit genocide. Other Risks In addition to its perilous impacts on weapons and war, nanotechnology manufacturing also presents issues of concern about surveillance, terrorism, environmental problems, economic upheaval, and more. With supercomputers and sensors effectively free, worldwide surveillance networks could be created with semi-automated data processing. Unusual events could be flagged for human attention, and objects and people could be tracked through space and time. This may be very tempting to governments as they try to avoid ownership and use of advanced weapons by individuals or small groups. But it would also enable massive governmental oppression. Should nanofactory-level technology become available to non-government entities, crime and terrorism may become significantly enabled. This could weaken or even destabilize governments and societies. If nanofactories can build solar energy collectors and feedstock pre-processors, it is not obvious what scarcity factor will prevent waste on a massive, even global scale. For example, profligate consumption of energy could lead to large fractions of the planet being covered in solar panels. Even things that are rare today, such as sonic booms from small aircraft, may become common enough to pose environmental problems. If small products were made in large quantity, they could form quantities of “nano-litter†that could be difficult to collect. The economic consequences of nanofactory technology are diverse and sizeable. If nanofactory products are as efficient and high-performance as expected, they may rapidly out-compete other forms of manufacturing. Nanofactory manufacture near time and place of use would affect transportation and storage industries. Manufacturing industries, of course, could be wiped out. New industries and lifestyles could create indirect economic effects. Rapid economic change could weaken or disrupt societies. A concern that has been raised about molecular manufacturing technology is that small, self-contained, self-replicating systems (so-called ‘grey goo’) might multiply in the wild and consume large fractions of the biosphere. Originally, it was feared that a laboratory accident could be enough to release such a device. However, current proposals for manufacturing systems do not include anything remotely like such a device, even during development phases. It is not yet known how much of a problem could arise from deliberate release of free-range self-replicators. They would probably be quite difficult to design, especially in a small package. They would have essentially no practical use, even as a weapon. However, it did not take long for the first computer virus to be created and released; hobbyists may be a source of concern once the technology becomes accessible to them. More analysis is needed to determine the eventual dangers posed by free-range self-replicators, with special attention paid to water-borne designs. However, the dangers of unstable arms races leading to devastating war and/or unbreakable oppression appear more pressing. Dealing With the Dangers There will be no simple solution to dealing with molecular manufacturing. Even a policy of massive suppression of it and all possible enabling technologies would not be immune to the possibility of internal instability on the part of the administrative group. It is also not clear that suppression is desirable. First, the benefits of a mature molecular manufacturing technology could be immense. The ability, for example, to perform planet-scale engineering projects in a matter of months may be necessary to mitigate climate change. Rapid prototyping of nanometer-scale products could accelerate medical research in several ways, as well as providing new kinds of treatment. Huge improvements in sustainable agriculture and efficient distribution systems can be anticipated for countries in the developing world. Replacement of inefficient infrastructure, along with inexpensive solar collectors, could greatly reduce our future ecological footprint (at least until new uses are found for the newly abundant resources). Inexpensive access to space could provide numerous benefits. More directly, widespread access to molecular manufacturing would enable widespread development of defenses against malicious uses. Although in a military context, it appears that offense will likely beat defense, it may be that widely deployed personal-scale defenses can mitigate personal-scale attacks. This possibility needs further analysis. Preventing malicious or irresponsible people from doing intolerably bad things is only one of the problems. Another source of problems is vicious cycles in social or political systems that may result from the stimulus of near-unlimited manufacturing. Perhaps the direst peril is the unstable arms race described above. Another possible vicious cycle is wealth concentration, caused by a large disparity between manufacturing cost and value to consumer, leading to increasing ability of businesses to purchase business-friendly policy. A third vicious cycle may arise from attempts to prevent ownership of desirable technology: a black market infrastructure may develop and grow. Unfortunately, almost no resources have been spent on studying these issues. If extensive research and analysis will be necessary to implement wise policy, there may not be time to complete them once the changes start. Large, especially international, administrative bodies also take time to create. If molecular manufacturing is physically possible, then it will happen soon, and technical and policy studies are urgently needed in advance of that date. Conclusion Although the possibility of high-performance molecular manufacturing has not been conclusively proved, analysis to date indicates that it will not only work, but will be far more powerful than other technologies, including other nanotechnologies. The actual development schedule is uncertain, but may be expected within the next few decades. Once a general-purpose set of digital molecular fabrication operations is developed, and exponential manufacturing is achieved, further progress toward nanofactories and advanced products may be rapid. Molecular manufacturing is likely to be far more powerful and dangerous than other forms of nanotechnology. Some of the dangers appear comparable in scope to nuclear war. Because some of the dangers arise from systemic vicious cycles and others may result from ill-conceived attempts at policy, studies aimed at developing wise approaches to the problems need to be initiated before the issues arise.

 

Specifically outweighs nuclear war

Bailey 8

[Ronald, science editor for Reason magazine, July 22, 2008, “The End of Humanity,†http://www.reason.com/news/show/127676.html] WD

While nuclear war and nuclear terrorism would be catastrophic, the presenters acknowledged that neither constituted existential risks; that is, a risk that they could cause the extinction of humanity. But the next two risks, self-improving artificial intelligence and nanotechnology, would.

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Actually here is something cool I found in the GDI Sci Coop neg file, its in terms of Cuba but I think this would be better, of course you're going to want to include reasons why nanotechnology is good. I'm sure there are tons of reasons for why it is.

Are you suggesting that I run the Cuba Science Co-Op Aff instead, and read nanotech advantage using the aff answers to the nanotech disad? Or use that evidence for my Mexico aff? Ultimately I would have run the Cuba one, but I'd prefer not to lose to politics, and most of the aff was cut by a classmate... don't wanna take his work and then both run it the whole year. As for using the cards for the mexico aff (It's almost identical plan, just with Mexico) I'm not quite sure how that would work... The aff creates bilateral projects for Nanotech... That would probably accelerate it and cause those impacts...

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I mean I thought you could try switching to a Cuba aff but if its your choice in the end man. I was just suggesting something because of the cards that I found while looking through some of the camp evidence and it somewhat related to this topic.

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