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A2: Grants Not $

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How do you answer the argument that grants aren't considered investment? Where can I find some interpretations?

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Investment is the giving of money for material result, according to google. Grants do that, for selected projects. Grants are investment par excellance.

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If you're talking specifically about land grants...

 

a. They have monetary value--land is an asset that's worth capital--so if you're getting into the capital expenditure debate a lot you should be able to find solid evidence that monetary assets count as capital too.

 

b. If you're reading Bering Strait (and your land grants evidence is Burroughs) then you actually do (or at least can, according to your interpretation) spend a reasonable amount of money. Burroughs outlines a "modified land grant financing plan" where a private company does the project for the USfg, with land grants, and in return the U.S. purchases bonds/stocks/securities from the company--that purchase of securities costs money, but not a lot. It also isn't a free gift, because the companies end up essentially paying for the land grants through the return on investment of the securities.

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land grants are given to invest in trade
DOT, No Date – (U.S. Department of Transportation, "A Brief History of Federal Policy and Freight Transportation",
http://web.archive.org/web/20110721040032/http:www.freight.dot.gov/freight_framework/freight_policy_hist.cfm)
A Brief History of Federal Policy and Freight Transportation The Federal Government has had an interest in freight transportation issues at least since 1808, when Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin sent a report to the Senate on potential federal-state-private partnerships to finance canals and roads.[1] Four decades later, Congressman Abraham Lincoln spoke eloquently of the need for federal investments in domestic transportation, specifically highlighting the movement of goods. He articulated a set of statistics to guide federal investments, including "the surplus, that which is produced in one place to be consumed in another; the capacity of each locality for producing a greater surplus; the natural means of transportation, and their susceptibility for improvement; the hindrances, delays, and losses of life and property during transportation, and the causes of each."[2] Throughout the nation's first 100 years, freight transportation policy deliberations focused on opening the frontier and supporting trade. Major initiatives included constructing the National Road, assigning responsibility to the U.S. Army for maintaining waterways and harbors, financing the transcontinental railroads through direct subsidies and land grants, and stimulating of demand for agricultural transport through homesteading.

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Grants are a form of Investment

World Bank, 4-18-12 (The World Bank Institute (WBI) is a global connector of knowledge, learning and innovation for poverty reduction, “Investment, Development Policy ad Program-for-Results Operations,†http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/0,,contentMDK:20120732~menuPK:268725~pagePK:41367~piPK:51533~theSitePK:40941,00.html)

 

The World Bank funds three basic types of operations: investment operations, development policy operations, and Program-for-Results operations. Investment operations provide funding (in the form of IBRD loans or IDA credits and grants) to governments to cover specific expenditures related to economic and social development projects in a broad range of sectors. Development Policy operations provide untied, direct budget support to governments for policy and institutional reforms aimed at achieving a set of specific development results. Program-for-Results operations support the performance of government programs by strengthening institutions and building capacity. The instrument links the disbursement of funds directly to the delivery of defined results. 

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