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I'm hoping to make a kritik that says getting high is a good thing because it liberates us from oppression, etc. My problem right now is finding literature, anyone know authors who take this position?

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I've never read Timothy Leary, so I'm not sure exactly what arguments he makes, but he was a huge advocate for drug use, you might want to check him out.

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Deleuze and Guattari talk about this toward the end of "Becoming-intense, becoming-animal" in A Thousand Plateaus.

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Deleuze and Guattari talk about this toward the end of "Becoming-intense, becoming-animal" in A Thousand Plateaus.

 

 

yea but then soon after that im sure D&G indict drug use because it carries a high potential for restratification (dependence, etc.)

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Anybody know enough about Rastafarianism (sp?) to name a text that makes this claim? I don't know whether there even is a Rasta "holy book," but I'm willing to bet that, if there is, it says lots of nice things about how the gifts of the earth can bring us closer to Jah.

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Anybody know enough about Rastafarianism (sp?) to name a text that makes this claim? I don't know whether there even is a Rasta "holy book," but I'm willing to bet that, if there is, it says lots of nice things about how the gifts of the earth can bring us closer to Jah.

 

i think thats a little textocentric for the rastafarians, who probably relied on community ceremony and spoken stories to accumulate traditions.

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I've never read Timothy Leary, so I'm not sure exactly what arguments he makes, but he was a huge advocate for drug use, you might want to check him out.

 

leary was a sort of lsd-transcendentalist. while he started his LSD "research" under the guise of psychological experimentation, claiming to be working on mental illness, most of the things he says and writes later involve expanding your consciousness and makes explicit comparisons to meditation other such mostly eastern spirituality.

 

aside from it's obvious competition problems, y'all need to probably consider that high school sanctioned events - even ones as largely ignored and lacking restraint as policy debate - will be obligated to take legal action against anyone discovered to be in possession of illegal substances. that's not fascism, it's tournament and activity self preservation. this is a bad idea at every conceivable level.

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maybe i missed it but...how is this competitive?

 

QFA.

In terms of practical application though, some of the cards you cut could be used if the Aff is an anti-drug aff, though I have no clue if that falls under social services.

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http://www.cross-x.com/vb/showthread.php?t=950065

-- if you go through all my posts on that thread, i pretty much cite every 'drugs good' author in an attempt to show michael antonucci that mind-altering substances can be more than merely recreational, i.e. potentially liberating... there's foucault, hardt & negri, leary, huxley, and more. hope that helps some.

Edited by Lazzarone

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leary was a sort of lsd-transcendentalist. while he started his LSD "research" under the guise of psychological experimentation, claiming to be working on mental illness, most of the things he says and writes later involve expanding your consciousness and makes explicit comparisons to meditation other such mostly eastern spirituality.

 

aside from it's obvious competition problems, y'all need to probably consider that high school sanctioned events - even ones as largely ignored and lacking restraint as policy debate - will be obligated to take legal action against anyone discovered to be in possession of illegal substances. that's not fascism, it's tournament and activity self preservation. this is a bad idea at every conceivable level.

Wait...hold up a second...

 

I completely agree that this is a bad idea, but your reasons are bunk. How do you get from a speech act defending drug use to the possession of drugs? Maybe community self-preservation isn't fascism (there's certainly a debate to be had about that, though), but the belief that anyone who defends drug use must be a user (potentially subject to being searched and/or arrested) IS fascism.

 

For purely strategic reasons I think it would be better to say that the war on drugs is bad rather than drug use good (I just think the literature is better on this question), but do what you do. If you do defend drug use you should focus your efforts on describing the rhetorical implications of defending drug use in a public forum. For all the reasons that it might seem dangerous, it is probably a political act to defend drug use.

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Wait...hold up a second...

 

I completely agree that this is a bad idea, but your reasons are bunk. How do you get from a speech act defending drug use to the possession of drugs? Maybe community self-preservation isn't fascism (there's certainly a debate to be had about that, though), but the belief that anyone who defends drug use must be a user (potentially subject to being searched and/or arrested) IS fascism.

 

you get there like this...

 

Make this a performance K.

 

*i'm relatively, perhaps naively, certain that the incredible hulk was being sarcastic. i felt that it was important despite this fact to make sure none of the ignorant, impressionable youngsters didn't the wrong idea.

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the phrase "ignorant, impressionable youngsters" is bigoted and ought to be outspokenly opposed by anyone who finds discrimination based on gender, race, or age intolerable and disgusting.

 

i'll cite from mike males' ground-breaking work, 'the scapegoat generation' (pages 220-222)...

 

The creation of adolescence as an age-based pathological condition contributes to the masking of factors that contribute to threats to health in a highly differentiated complex society... racism, the juvenilization of poverty, underemployment, inadequate education, and declining per-capita resources for dependent children and youth. - Robert Hill, J. Dennis Fortenberry, "Adolescence as a Culture-Bound Syndrome," 1992 (1) (...)

 

Teenage suicide, teenage car wrecks, teenage violence, teenage pregnancy, deadly and injurious teenage insanity. The drumbeat of American news media and periodical reports of adolescent disaster invariably include various experts explaining them as the consequence of "innate" teenage immaturity, instability, rebelliousness, self-destructiveness, and impulsiveness - in sum, "high risk." So common are these assertions that few realize there is no such thing as "high risk adolescent behavior." Nor are there any innate teenage tendencies toward impulsive, irrational, or dangerous behavior. These notions are rooted in the same kind of social-non-sicence that has plagued analysis of race, gender, and ethnic issues.

 

Where did American social scientists get the idea that adolescents are intrinsically perilous? They defined it that way. As Robert Hill and J. Dennis Fortenberry, of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, explains:

 

By creating adolescent as a developmental period defined by its problems, "adolescent health" becomes an oxymoron... "medicalized" into a condition that is inherently pathological... Adolescence per se is seen as the inevitable "risk" factor for these widespread problems as if the origin of these problems were innate to adolescents, rather than complex interactions of individual biology, personality, cultural preference, political expediency and social dysfunction. (2)

 

If adolescence is defined as a disease state, it must be cured. The major impetus for the development of psychological techniques in the late 1800s and early 1900s writes historian Joseph Kett, was the "testing," "treating," and "controlling" of teenagers. (3)

 

The views of the psychological industry are cited constantly by the media as "objective" commentary on adolescents. That is akin to relying on the Christian Coalition for objective commentary on homosexual behavior. Several studies have documented the biases, many extreme, held by most mental and medical professionals against teenagers. In repeated studies, psychologists and doctors, when asked to project how normal adolescents would respond to a battery of tests for various neuroses, predicted levels of anxiety, hostility, depression, vulnerability, and other indicators of mental disturbance that were two to three times higher than not only normal, but disturbed, violent, and disabled teenagers rated themselves on the same tests! (4) (5)

 

Where prejudice exists among scientists, as Stephan Jay Gould points out in, The Mismeasure of Man, criteria are selected and evidence assembled to support it. (6) Theories of "innate" teenage instability and recklessness derive from a fundamental mistake in psychological research: The tendency of clinicians to make unwarranted assertions about all adolescents by generalizing from clinical or institutionalized populations. "Even though normal teenagers were not studied by clinical investigators," psychiatrist Daniel Offer and colleagues write of the earlier studies in which these stereotypes were fostered, all teens were simply assumed "to have the same basic conflicts as psychiatric patients or juvenile delinquents" that the researchers had captive to study. (7)

 

Yet the view of roiling teenage biology determining reckless teenage destiny clearly remains the mainstream view of the social and health scientists providing commentary to the media and to political authorities. It is the chief surviving atavism of biological determinism, a 19th century pseudo-science that sought to classify nonwhite racial and ethnic groups and women as innately inferior under precisely the same criteria now applied to adolescents. Modern psychology and human behavior disciplines have resurrected, when convenient, the extreme Sturm und Drang notions of adolescents asserted by early-1900s psychologist G. Stanely Hall.

 

Wrote Hall in 1904 on teenagehood:

 

The momentum of heredity often seems insufficient to enable the child to achieve this great revolution and come to complete maturity, so that every step of the upward way is strewn with wreckage of body, mind, and morals. There is not only arrest, but perversion, at every stage, and hoodlumism, juvenile crime, and secret vice... Home, school, church fail to recognize its nature and needs and, perhaps most of all, its perils. (8)

 

This depiction of puberty as soul debilitation was based on the twisted adolescence of G. Stanely Hall, infused with mental and physical abuses by his father, more than any objective study of growing up. Similarly traditional psychodynamic theory viewed adolescence as a period of "disturbances of varying seriousness and crippling effects, transient or permanent." (9) Anna Freud wrote, "the upholding of steady equilibrium during the adolescent process is itself abnormal." (10)

 

Were social scientists' declarations of "biological determinism" - the innate disadvantages of nonwhites and women, as detailed in Chapter 1 - issued in a spirit of hostility? Not of the overt kind. It was with compassion and caring that the white man's burden to exercise greater control over impetuous, childlike, nonwhite races was invoked. Wrote one early-century scientist:

 

Modern science [has] shown that races develop in the course of centuries as individuals do in years, and that an undeveloped race, which is incapable of self-government [is like]... an undeveloped child who is incapable of self-government. (11)

 

In modern nomenclature, nonwhite races were "high risk" and required a comprehensive prevention-intervention-treatment management strategy, which just happened to buttress a variety of early-century domestic and international political goals. (...)

 

Gould's 1981 treatise, The Mismeasure of Man, explores the fallacies of labeling blacks and women as grownup "children" or "adolescents" subject to the control of innately superior white northern European men. This concept applies in equal and opposite fashion to today's efforts to resurrect the same stereotypes once inflicted on minorities and females to apply them against teenagers. Gould's opinion of biological determinism:

 

I would rather label the whole enterprise of setting a biological value upon groups for what it is: irrelevant, intellectually unsound, and highly injurious... By what right, other than our own biases, can we... hold that science now operates independently of culture and class? (14)

 

Gould recounts sincere, outrageous, and amusing efforts by 19th century social scientists to shoehorn inconvenient findings into predetermined theory. Like yesteryear's discredited predecessors who demeaned females and minority groups of their day, social scientists aiming the same charges at today's teenage class insist objective science is on their side.

 

Yet modern pop science ignores the preponderance of literature findings on adolescence, such as the following exhaustive textbook review of dozens of studies:

 

A few adolescents experience identity crises that are traumatic and totally preoccupying. However... for most, identity formation proceeds in very gradual, uneventful way... For most people, adolescence is not a period of intense emotional upheaval that brings with it an increased risk of adjustment difficulties, although it has often been thought of in this way. In fact, the incidence of serious psychological disturbance increases only slightly from childhood to adolescence (by about 2 percent), at which time the rate is about the same as it is in the adult population. (15)

 

Daniel Offer's studies of 30,000 youths from the 1960s through the 1980s reported "no support for adolescent turmoil" or instability theories. Three decades of surveys of a wide variety of adolescents found 85 percent were healthy and confident, 90 percent were concerned with the future and work, and 90 percent held attitudes and values similar to those of their parents. (16) From a cognitive, developmental, maturity, or behavior standpoint, there is no reason to view 16-year-olds as different from adults, Offer's lengthy studies concluded. (17) (...)

 

Larger examinations of the treatment of teenagers have pointed out that stereotyping is no accident. Historians Jospeh Kett's definitive 1977 text, Adolescence in America, observed that the development of anti-teen stereotyping among social scientists is inherent to the term "adolescence" itself:

 

To speak of the "invention of the adolescent" rather than of the discovery of the adolescence underscores a related point: adolescence was essentially a conception of behavior imposed on youth rather than an empirical assessment of the way in which young people actually behaved... A biological process of maturation became the basis of the social definition of an entire age group. (19)

 

Thus modern social scientists who vehemently reject biological determinism as the basis of behavior for racial groups or women nevertheless continue to claim the "intrinsic" nature of violent or libidinous teenage actions (applied in practice mainly to the behavior of nonwhite teens). Gould sums up the damaging constriction of imposing the mass rigidity of "innateness" on behavior versus the broader realities of human potential evaluated according to the individual and circumstance:

 

Biological determinism... is fundamentally a theory about limits. It takes current ranges in modern environments as an expression of direct genetic programming, rather than a limited display of a much broader potential... [but] if... behavior is an expression of broad rules tied to specific circumstances, we anticipate a wide range of behaviors in different environments... This flexibility should not be obscured by the linguistic error of branding some common expressions "innate" because we can predict their occurrence in certain environments. (20)

 

If impoverished youth tend to be more violent, it is the condition of poverty that engenders it and not some violence "innate" to poorer youth - let alone to all youth.

 

_

 

(1) Hill RF, Fortenberry JD (1992). Adolescence as a culture-bound syndrome. Social Science & Medicine 35, 78.

(2) Hill & Fortenberry (1992), op cit, p73.

(3) Kett JE (1977). Rites of passage: Adolescence in America, 1790 to the present. New York: Basic Books, pp 238-241.

(4) Holmbeck GN, Hill JP (1988). Storm and stress beliefs about adolescence: Prevalence, self-reported antecedents, and effects on an undergraduate course. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 17, 285-306.

(5) Lavigne JV (1977). The pediatric staff's knowledge of normal adolescence development. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2, 98-100.

(6) Gould SJ (1981). The Mismeasure of Man. New York: WW Norton & Company.

(7) Offer D, Ostrov E, Howard KI (1981). The adolescent: A psychological self-portrait. New York: Basic Books, p 5.

(8) Hall GS (1904). Adolescence: Its psychology and its relation to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime, religion, and education. New York: D Appleton, p xiv.

(9) Blos P (1961). On adolescence. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, p 9.

(10) Freud A (1958). Adolescence. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 13, 275.

(11) Strong J, quoted in Gould SJ (1981), op cit, p 118.

(14) Gould SJ (1981), op cit, pp 74, 107.

(15) Berk L (1991). Child development. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, p445.

(16) Offer et al (1981), op cit, pp 2-4, 63, 65.

(17) Offer D (1987). In defense of adolescents. Journal of the American Medical Association 257, 3407-3408.

(19) Kett (1977), op cit, 215, 243.

(20) Gould SJ (1982), op cit, pp 330-331.

Edited by Lazzarone
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maybe i missed it but...how is this competitive?

 

 

its not a CP.. hopefully ill use it as my aff. case next year... i dont want to say exactly what im doing though

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http://www.cross-x.com/vb/showthread.php?t=950065

-- if you go through all my posts on that thread, i pretty much cite every 'drugs good' author in an attempt to show michael antonucci that mind-altering substances can be more than merely recreational, i.e. potentially liberating... there's foucault, hardt & negri, leary, huxley, and more. hope that helps some.

Where'd you learn that, Cheech? Drug School?

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its not a CP.. hopefully ill use it as my aff. case next year... i dont want to say exactly what im doing though

Plan: The United States federal government should provide free drugs to everyone in this room.

 

The "Becoming Poor Druggies Aff"

I'd be careful for the oxycotton Pic though.

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the phrase "ignorant, impressionable youngsters" is bigoted and ought to be outspokenly opposed by anyone who finds discrimination based on gender, race, or age intolerable and disgusting.

 

i'll cite from mike males' ground-breaking work, 'the scapegoat generation' (pages 220-222)...

 

The creation of adolescence as an age-based pathological condition contributes to the masking of factors that contribute to threats to health in a highly differentiated complex society... racism, the juvenilization of poverty, underemployment, inadequate education, and declining per-capita resources for dependent children and youth. - Robert Hill, J. Dennis Fortenberry, "Adolescence as a Culture-Bound Syndrome," 1992 (1) (...)

 

Teenage suicide, teenage car wrecks, teenage violence, teenage pregnancy, deadly and injurious teenage insanity. The drumbeat of American news media and periodical reports of adolescent disaster invariably include various experts explaining them as the consequence of "innate" teenage immaturity, instability, rebelliousness, self-destructiveness, and impulsiveness - in sum, "high risk." So common are these assertions that few realize there is no such thing as "high risk adolescent behavior." Nor are there any innate teenage tendencies toward impulsive, irrational, or dangerous behavior. These notions are rooted in the same kind of social-non-sicence that has plagued analysis of race, gender, and ethnic issues.

 

Where did American social scientists get the idea that adolescents are intrinsically perilous? They defined it that way. As Robert Hill and J. Dennis Fortenberry, of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, explains:

 

By creating adolescent as a developmental period defined by its problems, "adolescent health" becomes an oxymoron... "medicalized" into a condition that is inherently pathological... Adolescence per se is seen as the inevitable "risk" factor for these widespread problems as if the origin of these problems were innate to adolescents, rather than complex interactions of individual biology, personality, cultural preference, political expediency and social dysfunction. (2)

 

If adolescence is defined as a disease state, it must be cured. The major impetus for the development of psychological techniques in the late 1800s and early 1900s writes historian Joseph Kett, was the "testing," "treating," and "controlling" of teenagers. (3)

 

The views of the psychological industry are cited constantly by the media as "objective" commentary on adolescents. That is akin to relying on the Christian Coalition for objective commentary on homosexual behavior. Several studies have documented the biases, many extreme, held by most mental and medical professionals against teenagers. In repeated studies, psychologists and doctors, when asked to project how normal adolescents would respond to a battery of tests for various neuroses, predicted levels of anxiety, hostility, depression, vulnerability, and other indicators of mental disturbance that were two to three times higher than not only normal, but disturbed, violent, and disabled teenagers rated themselves on the same tests! (4) (5)

 

Where prejudice exists among scientists, as Stephan Jay Gould points out in, The Mismeasure of Man, criteria are selected and evidence assembled to support it. (6) Theories of "innate" teenage instability and recklessness derive from a fundamental mistake in psychological research: The tendency of clinicians to make unwarranted assertions about all adolescents by generalizing from clinical or institutionalized populations. "Even though normal teenagers were not studied by clinical investigators," psychiatrist Daniel Offer and colleagues write of the earlier studies in which these stereotypes were fostered, all teens were simply assumed "to have the same basic conflicts as psychiatric patients or juvenile delinquents" that the researchers had captive to study. (7)

 

Yet the view of roiling teenage biology determining reckless teenage destiny clearly remains the mainstream view of the social and health scientists providing commentary to the media and to political authorities. It is the chief surviving atavism of biological determinism, a 19th century pseudo-science that sought to classify nonwhite racial and ethnic groups and women as innately inferior under precisely the same criteria now applied to adolescents. Modern psychology and human behavior disciplines have resurrected, when convenient, the extreme Sturm und Drang notions of adolescents asserted by early-1900s psychologist G. Stanely Hall.

 

Wrote Hall in 1904 on teenagehood:

 

The momentum of heredity often seems insufficient to enable the child to achieve this great revolution and come to complete maturity, so that every step of the upward way is strewn with wreckage of body, mind, and morals. There is not only arrest, but perversion, at every stage, and hoodlumism, juvenile crime, and secret vice... Home, school, church fail to recognize its nature and needs and, perhaps most of all, its perils. (8)

 

This depiction of puberty as soul debilitation was based on the twisted adolescence of G. Stanely Hall, infused with mental and physical abuses by his father, more than any objective study of growing up. Similarly traditional psychodynamic theory viewed adolescence as a period of "disturbances of varying seriousness and crippling effects, transient or permanent." (9) Anna Freud wrote, "the upholding of steady equilibrium during the adolescent process is itself abnormal." (10)

 

Were social scientists' declarations of "biological determinism" - the innate disadvantages of nonwhites and women, as detailed in Chapter 1 - issued in a spirit of hostility? Not of the overt kind. It was with compassion and caring that the white man's burden to exercise greater control over impetuous, childlike, nonwhite races was invoked. Wrote one early-century scientist:

 

Modern science [has] shown that races develop in the course of centuries as individuals do in years, and that an undeveloped race, which is incapable of self-government [is like]... an undeveloped child who is incapable of self-government. (11)

 

In modern nomenclature, nonwhite races were "high risk" and required a comprehensive prevention-intervention-treatment management strategy, which just happened to buttress a variety of early-century domestic and international political goals. (...)

 

Gould's 1981 treatise, The Mismeasure of Man, explores the fallacies of labeling blacks and women as grownup "children" or "adolescents" subject to the control of innately superior white northern European men. This concept applies in equal and opposite fashion to today's efforts to resurrect the same stereotypes once inflicted on minorities and females to apply them against teenagers. Gould's opinion of biological determinism:

 

I would rather label the whole enterprise of setting a biological value upon groups for what it is: irrelevant, intellectually unsound, and highly injurious... By what right, other than our own biases, can we... hold that science now operates independently of culture and class? (14)

 

Gould recounts sincere, outrageous, and amusing efforts by 19th century social scientists to shoehorn inconvenient findings into predetermined theory. Like yesteryear's discredited predecessors who demeaned females and minority groups of their day, social scientists aiming the same charges at today's teenage class insist objective science is on their side.

 

Yet modern pop science ignores the preponderance of literature findings on adolescence, such as the following exhaustive textbook review of dozens of studies:

 

A few adolescents experience identity crises that are traumatic and totally preoccupying. However... for most, identity formation proceeds in very gradual, uneventful way... For most people, adolescence is not a period of intense emotional upheaval that brings with it an increased risk of adjustment difficulties, although it has often been thought of in this way. In fact, the incidence of serious psychological disturbance increases only slightly from childhood to adolescence (by about 2 percent), at which time the rate is about the same as it is in the adult population. (15)

 

Daniel Offer's studies of 30,000 youths from the 1960s through the 1980s reported "no support for adolescent turmoil" or instability theories. Three decades of surveys of a wide variety of adolescents found 85 percent were healthy and confident, 90 percent were concerned with the future and work, and 90 percent held attitudes and values similar to those of their parents. (16) From a cognitive, developmental, maturity, or behavior standpoint, there is no reason to view 16-year-olds as different from adults, Offer's lengthy studies concluded. (17) (...)

 

Larger examinations of the treatment of teenagers have pointed out that stereotyping is no accident. Historians Jospeh Kett's definitive 1977 text, Adolescence in America, observed that the development of anti-teen stereotyping among social scientists is inherent to the term "adolescence" itself:

 

To speak of the "invention of the adolescent" rather than of the discovery of the adolescence underscores a related point: adolescence was essentially a conception of behavior imposed on youth rather than an empirical assessment of the way in which young people actually behaved... A biological process of maturation became the basis of the social definition of an entire age group. (19)

 

Thus modern social scientists who vehemently reject biological determinism as the basis of behavior for racial groups or women nevertheless continue to claim the "intrinsic" nature of violent or libidinous teenage actions (applied in practice mainly to the behavior of nonwhite teens). Gould sums up the damaging constriction of imposing the mass rigidity of "innateness" on behavior versus the broader realities of human potential evaluated according to the individual and circumstance:

 

Biological determinism... is fundamentally a theory about limits. It takes current ranges in modern environments as an expression of direct genetic programming, rather than a limited display of a much broader potential... [but] if... behavior is an expression of broad rules tied to specific circumstances, we anticipate a wide range of behaviors in different environments... This flexibility should not be obscured by the linguistic error of branding some common expressions "innate" because we can predict their occurrence in certain environments. (20)

 

If impoverished youth tend to be more violent, it is the condition of poverty that engenders it and not some violence "innate" to poorer youth - let alone to all youth.

 

_

 

(1) Hill RF, Fortenberry JD (1992). Adolescence as a culture-bound syndrome. Social Science & Medicine 35, 78.

(2) Hill & Fortenberry (1992), op cit, p73.

(3) Kett JE (1977). Rites of passage: Adolescence in America, 1790 to the present. New York: Basic Books, pp 238-241.

(4) Holmbeck GN, Hill JP (1988). Storm and stress beliefs about adolescence: Prevalence, self-reported antecedents, and effects on an undergraduate course. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 17, 285-306.

(5) Lavigne JV (1977). The pediatric staff's knowledge of normal adolescence development. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2, 98-100.

(6) Gould SJ (1981). The Mismeasure of Man. New York: WW Norton & Company.

(7) Offer D, Ostrov E, Howard KI (1981). The adolescent: A psychological self-portrait. New York: Basic Books, p 5.

(8) Hall GS (1904). Adolescence: Its psychology and its relation to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime, religion, and education. New York: D Appleton, p xiv.

(9) Blos P (1961). On adolescence. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, p 9.

(10) Freud A (1958). Adolescence. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 13, 275.

(11) Strong J, quoted in Gould SJ (1981), op cit, p 118.

(14) Gould SJ (1981), op cit, pp 74, 107.

(15) Berk L (1991). Child development. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, p445.

(16) Offer et al (1981), op cit, pp 2-4, 63, 65.

(17) Offer D (1987). In defense of adolescents. Journal of the American Medical Association 257, 3407-3408.

(19) Kett (1977), op cit, 215, 243.

(20) Gould SJ (1982), op cit, pp 330-331.

 

i should have been more precise, perhaps. i meant to attempt to isolate a subcategory of the people who post on this board (most of whom are younger than me) who are also impressionable and ignorant to the acceptability of certain kinds of conduct in particular in the debate community. what i did not mean, nor do i think what i said can be read to univocally mean this, was that young people have biologically determined traits of any kind (which, upon my reading of it, is what the above is critical of). while it is perhaps an indication of the sort of bias this evidence critiques that i didn't stop to think that the adults posting here may also be impressionable and ignorant (a move on my part that is admittedly regrettable), it doesn't seem likely in this instance since those adults would almost entirely be people who've been around education or at least the debate community for longer. having worked with kids of all ages for awhile now i can be pretty confident that while it wouldn't be fair to say all kids are "at risk", i find it undeniably necessary to make the sorts of warnings ("don't perform drug cases or you'll be arrested"*) that i did above, as there are certainly some kids who will do it, likely despite any number of warnings.

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