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Nanotech could also be the college topic.

 

 

 

 

allAfrica.com

 

 

Nanotechnology Could Improve Health, Water in Developing Nations

 

United States Department of State (Washington, DC)

NEWS

March 5, 2007

Posted to the web March 6, 2007

 

By Cheryl Pellerin

Washington, DC

 

Nanotechnology, science on the scale of atoms and molecules, could give developing nations new ways to diagnose and treat disease and make clean water more available, if government s, nongovernmental organizations, industry and others would work to apply the powerful technology to these challenges, scientists say.

 

Nanotechnology is the ability to see, measure, manipulate and manufacture things on a scale of 1 to 100 nanometers. A nanometer is 1 billionth of a meter; a sheet of paper is about 100,000 nanometers thick.

 

"Nanotechnology has the potential to generate enormous health benefits for the more than 5 billion people living in the developing world," said Peter Singer, senior scientist at the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health and professor of medicine at the University of Toronto, at a February 27 meeting, Using Nanotechnology to Improve Health Care in Developing Countries.

 

The event was organized by two Woodrow Wilson International Center efforts - the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies and the Global Health Initiative.

 

Nanotechnologies are being developed in nearly every industry, including electronics, magnetics and optoelectronics, energy, information technology, materials development, transportation, pharmaceuticals and medicine. (See related article.)

 

The emerging field involves scientists from many disciplines, including physicists, chemists, engineers, materials scientists and biologists. More than 400 consumer products worldwide are derived from the use of nanotechnology in some way.

 

NANOTECHNOLOGY AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

 

In 2005, Singer's group in Toronto published a study identifying and ranking the 10 nanotechnologies most likely to benefit the developing world in the near future.

 

At the top of the list were nanotechnology applications related to energy storage, production and conversion; enhancement of agricultural productivity; water treatment and remediation; and the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

 

The group also showed that a surprising amount of nanotechnology research and development activity is ongoing in several developing countries, and that these nations are directing their nanotechnology innovation systems to address their more pressing needs.

 

"Countries like Brazil, India, China and South Africa have significant nanotechnology research initiatives that could be directed toward the particular needs of the poor," said Andrew Maynard, chief science adviser for the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies.

 

In a 2005 paper describing his team's study, Nanotechnology and the Developing World, Singer said India's Department of Science and Technology would invest $20 million in 2004-2009 for a Nanomaterials Science and Technology Initiative.

 

The number of nanotechnology patent applications from China ranks third, behind the United States and Japan. In Brazil, the projected budget for nanoscience during 2004-2007 was about $25 million.

 

The South African Nanotechnology Initiative is a national network of academic researchers involved in nanotechnology, and other developing countries, such as Thailand, the Philippines, Chile, Argentina and Mexico, are pursuing nanotechnology, according to Singer's paper.

 

NANOTECHNOLOGY AND DISEASE

 

In the United States, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Cancer Institute (NCI) has formed the Nanotechnology Alliance for Cancer to move more quickly molecular-based science from the laboratory into the clinic.

 

"Nanotechnologies could revolutionize health care in developing countries," said Alliance Director Piotr Grodzinski, "and make treatments more readily available for diseases that claim millions of lives around the world each year."

 

Nanomaterials and nanomedical devices, he added, "will play increasingly critical and beneficial roles in improving the way we diagnose, treat, and ultimately prevent cancer and other diseases."

 

It might one day be possible, for example, for citizens in Bangladesh to place contaminated water in inexpensive transparent bottles that will disinfect the water when placed in direct sunlight, or for doctors in Mexico to give patients vaccines that can be inhaled and that do not need to be refrigerated.

 

The challenges, Grodzinski said, include the complexity of bringing such treatments into the clinic and the cost of care. As a result, the distribution of nanotechnology treatments might be more gradual in some developing countries.

 

ADDRESSING GLOBAL CHALLENGES

 

To help the international community support the application of nanotechnology to critical sustainable development challenges in developing countries, including health care, Singer and his group proposed an initiative called "Addressing Global Challenges Using Nanotechnology."

 

Modeled after the Foundation for the NIH/Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Grand Challenges in Global Health, the initiative would be funded by national and international foundations, and from collaboration among nanotechnology initiatives in industrialized and developing countries.

 

Responsible development of nanotechnology must include benefits for people in both rich and poor nations and at relatively low cost," Maynard said. "This also requires that careful attention be paid to possible risks nanotechnology poses for human health and the environment." (See related article.)

 

(USINFO is produced by the Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State. Web site: http://usinfo.state.gov)

 

Copyright © 2007 United States Department of State. All rights reserved. Distributed by AllAfrica Global Media (allAfrica.com).

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gates cp

http://cenamps.blogspot.com/2007/02/using-nanotechnology-to-improve-health.html

 

February 16, 2007

Using Nanotechnology to Improve Health in Developing Countries

Millions of people die each year in developing countries from diseases that are preventable and treatable. Moreover, tragically little research is done to prevent or cure some of the world’s biggest killers, such as malaria and tuberculosis.

 

What if doctors in Kenya could equip cells of the retina with photoswitches that can be flipped on, essentially making blind nerve cells see and restoring light sensitivity in people with degenerative blindness? What if public health workers in Bangladesh could place contaminated water into transparent bottles, which when placed in direct sunlight could disinfect the water and help prevent water-borne diseases like cholera, dysentery or polio?

 

What if a medical technician in Vietnam could use a tiny "reporter" molecule that attaches itself to specific bacteria or viruses in a patient sample and read with an inexpensive laser device -- no bigger than a briefcase -- whether an infectious disease is present? What if a nurse in Brazil could dispense a gel that would stick to the AIDS virus surface like molecular Velcro and prevent it from attacking healthy cells in sexually active women?

 

These scenarios are not science fiction. They are just a few examples of the exciting potential of nanomedicine -- an offshoot of nanotechnology which researchers in both industrialized and developing countries hail as enabling the next big breakthroughs in medicine and which they promise to change virtually every facet of health care, disease control and prevention.

 

Several of the projects being financed by The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation’s $450 million Grand Challenges in Global Health initiative involve nanotechnology including development of a nanoemulsion-based vaccine delivery system that uses a simple nasal swab rather than an injection.

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solvency

at t assistance

 

Nanotechnology Could Improve Health Care in Developing Countries

 

March 15, 2007 at 11:00 pm · Filed under VOA, VOA Africa, VOA Health, VOA Health and Science, VOA Science and Technology

 

Scientists say nanotechnology, which involves some of the smallest things on earth, could have a big impact in developing countries. And some of the biggest benefits could come in improving health.

 

Nanotechnology refers to the ability to manipulate materials on the nanometer scale.

 

How small is that? A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter - something like the length of a line,10 atoms long.

 

That’s hard to grasp, so nanotech scientist Andrew Maynard explains it with an analogy. If you can imagine a child the size of the Moon, “a tennis ball will be something like 50 nanometers in diameter. Or the head of a pin will be one nanometer in diameter. So the difference in scale, going from human scale to the nanoscale, is the equivalent of taking the moon and putting the head of a pin on the moon.”

 

Maynard is chief scientist at the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, part of the Woodrow Wilson Center in Washington. At a recent symposium, he said researchers have been using nanotechnology to create products like cosmetics and stain resistant clothing. But some of the most promising uses of nanotechnology are in the health field.

 

In sub-Saharan Africa each year, malaria kills a million children under the age of five. A big part of the malaria challenge is correctly diagnosing patients. Often, anti-malaria drugs are given without a proper diagnosis, to people who may not have malaria. That’s not only wasteful, it contributes to drug resistance. Peter Singer of the University of Toronto says a nanotechnology called quantum dots could make it much easier to correctly diagnose malaria, instead of using the traditional method of examining a patient’s blood under a microscope.

 

“The bottom line,” says Singer, “is that changing the infrastructure from moderate infrastructure like microscopes, to minimal infrastructure, like the quantum dots I was showing you, saves hundreds of thousands of lives for malaria. So this is a serious public health issue at stake, just from a diagnostic.”

 

In addition to better diagnostics, nanotechnology could also help in treating disease. For example, as Piotr Grodzinski of the U.S. National Cancer Institute points out, it could help make existing medicines more effective. “You can develop techniques which allow [doctors] to deliver the therapeutic drug or therapeutic treatment locally to the tumor site, and in many cases use much lower dose of the drug, and by that means cause lower side effects.”

 

Advances in nanotechnology are coming out of labs in the usual advanced countries. But scientists in developing and emerging countries - China, India and Brazil, for example - are also involved. However, as program moderator Jeff Spieler of the U.S. Agency for International Development cautioned, it’s still a big step getting those innovations to some of the world’s poorest people.

 

“This to some extent will depend on how many of the new innovations will actually be coming from the laboratories of less developed countries,” said Spieler, “and then what is the likelihood of that these advances, even in those laboratories, will find their way into the indigenous populations of those countries and not be picked up by somebody else?”

 

Although nanotech experts stress the potential benefits from the new technology, they also concede that there are risks involved in working with these new nano materials. Andrew Maynard of the Woodrow Wilson Center acknowledged the uncertainties.

 

“If you look at the very simplest case of nanometer-size particles, we know they behave differently in the body and in the environment [compared] to larger, more conventional particles,” Maynard explained. “So yes, there are going to be a whole new set of risk issues we need to address, and that’s going to require quite a substantial investment in new science to understand what those risks are, but also how to translate and transform that information into effective and safe ways of using the technologies.”

 

Among those at risk could be workers involved in manufacturing new nano-scale materials, as well as consumers, such as those taking nano-based medicines.

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Africa’s nano revolution

John Etkind

Published: 18-AUG-06

 

African continent is holding its own in a technological development that is already showing breathtaking results in manufacture, medicine and micro-processing sciences.

 

Excitingly, this process of manipulating atoms and molecules into miniscule engines of creation, maintenance and repair typically uses everyday materials in abundance everywhere. It takes tiny bits of matter and rearranges them to create just about anything under the sun. (See panel: Seriously Small Science). According to Bethual Sehlapelo, deputy director-general of the South African department of science and technology’s Frontier Science Programme, “Nano is going to be the next technological revolution.”

 

There has been a call from scientific quarters, however, for a slowdown in the breakneck speed of nanotechnological development, with warnings that some manufacturers may be rushing to market without adequate research into side effects.

 

Africa in the nano stakes

 

Although sub-Saharan Africa is a late entrant in this new technological race, an African materials forum held at Johannesburg’s Wits University two years ago provided a kick-start. A recent South African strategy document outlines two distinct opportunities in nanotechnology for the southern region of the continent: by adding enormous value to such African minerals as gold, titanium, palladium and platinum, and by using the technology to fight poverty. Nanotechnology can lead to affordable, low cost electronics, and more efficient drug delivery.

 

“In the nano range, differences of size become important,” says Science in Africa magazine. “When something like silicon is deliberately carved down to its smallest possible level, it behaves distinctly differently. Bulk silicon doesn’t emit light. But if you make silicon very small, it becomes an illuminating source.

 

“One of the most interesting things about small lumps of matter is that their properties change dramatically as the samples shrink. Materials might become more stable or longer lasting, for example, which can make paint coatings more durable or colour displays brighter and more effective. In medicine, administering drugs that don’t dissolve in water is difficult, but nanoparticles could carry the drug molecules around the body suspended in the blood.”

 

The Africa connection

 

Africa has distinct opportunities for applications of the breakthrough work being done at South Africa’s University of Zululand, especially in energy storage and water treatment. “Our synthesis and characterisation of nanomaterials for possible industrial applications places our team in a leadership position in this rapidly growing field,” says UniZul’s department of chemistry project leader, Professor Gabriel Kolawole. “What is particularly gratifying about this research is that it has come about after just a few years at an institution that was never meant to be more than a glorified high school, not to educate scientists, not to conduct research — and which has suffered decades of academic neglect.”

 

The team, led by Kolawole, focuses on coordination chemistry, the science of studying how well disparate chemicals dance together in various combinations. Coordination chemistry is developing a variety of organometallic compounds, some for potential use as inorganic antibiotics, and others for treating chloroquine-resistant malaria. Compounds are also being investigated for possible uses as microelectronic devices, and in treating industrial waste water polluted with heavy metals.

 

Dr Neerish Revaprasadu, UniZul’s deputy project leader and South Africa’s only formally trained nanomaterials chemist, says it’s plain old chemistry that goes a step further in breaking materials down to their lowest common denominator.

 

“Materials on the ultra-small nanoscale exhibit unique properties that can be useful in such applications as light-emitting devices or solid state lasers in medical procedures,” he reports. “Materials brought down to the nanoscale are also important in catalysis, a process that deliberately causes chemical reactions in order to create a new combination or effect, and this is causing a great deal of interest in both the mining industry and in pharmaceuticals.”

 

The team has been making semiconductor nanoparticles using the so-called “top-down” precursor approach that takes something big and breaks it down chemically to produce the desired nanoparticles. Top down is important because it is an environmentally-friendly, safer and simple route to high quality, high yield materials that avoids the use of volatile and toxic compounds employed in other organometallic processes.

 

“We’ve concentrated on finding the best compounds to use as precursors and how best to use them,” explains Revaprasadu. (A precursor is a large molecule, not yet nano, which is then broken down by heating to form nanosized materials.) “We’ve been fine-tuning our method, and also investigating ways to achieve high yields while maintaining high quality and low cost, because demand for quality will increase worldwide in the next decade, and our project addresses the need for simple, low-cost synthetic routes to nanosized materials.”

 

“It’s a fundamental study,” says Dr Revaprasadu. “We can make any amount of nanoparticles but beyond that, the processing of it is in the application, in the future. It can be put on a film, or on a polymer or processed in other ways. It’s about adding value to old technologies, not just replacing them. Look at platinum and palladium in catalysis — if we increase its value at nanoscale, we can use less of it to do more work. The same applies to solar cells. Nanoparticles can improve the process.”

 

The team is also the only group in South Africa to be using the new precursors for the micron-sized thin films, which are potentially useful in solar cells.

 

Revaprasadu emphasises the importance of developing a global centre in South Africa for the country to compete internationally: “We mustn’t miss out at the early stage in this emerging area which, globally, has very few experts. Our centre is rare because we offer expertise that is hard to find. Those we train are marketable worldwide — so is the research done by our group.”

 

Danger in nanospace?

 

Is there a downside in this apparently pure and innocent new science? Experts believe dangers of nanotechnology might lie in how these tiny particles could interact with the environment, and more importantly, with the human body. Some scientists worry about the billions of dollars being spent to incorporate nanoparticles into existing products, compared with the comparatively scant research into nanotech health issues. It’s now a proven scientific fact that elements encountered at the nanoscale behave differently than the larger counterparts they were derived from – with a possibly disquieting effect on human and non-human life.

 

Cases in point

# 1997: Scientists at Oxford University discovered nanoparticles used in sunscreen created free radicals that damaged DNA.

# 2002: The Centre for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology reported indications of nanoparticles accumulated in the bodies of laboratory animals, and still other studies showed fullerenes travel freely through soil and could be absorbed by earthworms. This is a potential link up the food chain to humans and presents one of the possible dangers of nanotechnology.

# 2002: University of California revealed cadmium selenide nanoparticles, also called quantum dots, can cause cadmium poisoning in humans.

# 2004: British scientist Vyvyan Howard published findings that indicated gold nanoparticles might move through a mother’s placenta to the foetus.

 

According to Hazards Magazine, the ability of nanoparticles to interact with other living systems increases because they can easily cross the skin, lung, and in some cases the blood/brain barriers. Once inside the body, there may be further biochemical reactions like the creation of free radicals that damage cells.

 

While the body has built-in defences for natural particles it encounters, the danger of nanotechnology is that it is introducing entirely new type of particles. Particles some experts say the body is likely to find toxic. There is no doubt that nanoparticles have interesting properties and are loaded with potential scientific breakthrough. Many concerned groups are proposing a moratorium on marketing nano-related products and urge research to precede manufacturing rather than proceed it.

 

Incredible new nano products

 

Throwaway sun power:

The nano-scale properties are leading to the development of a super-thin disposable solar panel that could offer rural dwellers a cheap, alternative source of power. Researchers at the University of Cape Town in South Africa are close to perfecting a technique that prints specialised inks containing nano-particles of silicon and other semiconductors onto paper panels. The voltage and power output of the solar cell is determined by the size of the panel. According to Professor Dave Britten, an A2-sized paper panel will provide up to 100W of power – about five hours of lighting. “Many rural families can’t afford R1 000 ($165) for a solar panel designed to last for 30 years,” says Britten, “but they can afford R10 ($1,65) every three to six months for a disposable panel.” The sheeting would be manufactured in rolls and cut to customers’ needs.

 

Nerve regrowth agent:

American researchers say they have repaired brain damage and restored the sight of blind animals using nanotechnology. The treatment, scheduled for testing on humans in five years, was pioneered by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the US and uses tiny particles which, when injected into a damaged part of the brain, form a network that supports the re-growth of severed nerves to make new connections.

 

Nanorobot repairmen:

Genome News Network (GNN) reports on nanorobotics, an emerging field in medicine in which tiny machines will travel inside our bodies, digging for information, finding defects or delivering drugs.

 

Nanotechnology - seriously small science

 

Nanotechnology is the science of the extremely small. Nano as a measurement is one-billionth of a metre; for instance, a single human hair is about 80 000 nanometres in width. The name comes from the Greek word nanos, meaning ‘dwarf’. Nanotechnology as a science manipulates atoms and molecules to fabricate materials, devices and systems, from the ground up, so to speak. And so all manner of things can be built in the way bricks are stacked on top of one another to build a wall. Unlike current production methods, in which existing parts and components are combined, nanotechnology takes atoms and precisely assembles them to produce items with desirable characteristics. American researcher, Eric Drexler, used the term in a scientific publication in 1986 and it’s been in common usage ever since. Writes Drexler in his seminal publication Engines of Creation: “The term refers to the manipulation of matter on the scale of the nano-metre (0.000000001 meter). The goal of nanotechnology is to control individual atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other devices that are thousands of times smaller than current technologies permit. Beyond being used in computers and communication devices, nanotechnology could be used to build devices, change the properties of materials and make advances in biotechnology.”

 

Drexler goes on to point out that manufactured products are made from atoms. “The properties of those products depend on how those atoms are arranged. If we rearrange the atoms in coal we can make diamonds. If we rearrange the atoms in sand (and add a few other trace elements) we can make computer chips. If we rearrange the atoms in dirt, water and air we can make potatoes.”

 

Today’s manufacturing methods are crude at the molecular level. Casting, grinding, milling and even lithography move atoms in great statistical herds. It’s like trying to make things out of LEGO blocks with boxing gloves on your hands. “Yes,” says Drexler, “you can push the LEGO blocks into great heaps and pile them up, but you can’t really snap them together the way you’d like.”

 

In the future, nanotechnology will remove the boxing gloves and allow manufacturers to snap together the fundamental building blocks of nature easily, inexpensively and in most of the ways permitted by the laws of physics. “This is if we are to continue the revolution in computer hardware,” says Drexler. “It will also let us fabricate an entire new generation of products that are cleaner, stronger, lighter, and more precise.” -BiA Online

 

This article was first published in Business in Africa Magazine (International Edition), July 2006. To subscribe click here

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b

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didnt he say something about this?

 

Yes. His whole Dehume is nuke war, enviormental apocalypse, international genocide. Is based off of Dehuminazation from nanotech.

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there aren't any warrants as to why nanotech might be dehumnizing in the classic beruebe card, and on the timeframe question...you could win immediate solvency and have the advantages based on perception right?

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timeframe is 2010

http://theloomoftime.blogspot.com/2006/03/nanofactory-this-is-right-out-of-star.html

 

Molecular manufacturing (MM) means the ability to build devices, machines, and eventually whole products with every atom in its specified place.

Today the theories for using mechanical chemistry to directly fabricate nanoscale structures are well-developed and awaiting progress in enabling technologies. Assuming all this theory works—and no one has established a problem with it yet—exponential general-purpose molecular manufacturing appears to be inevitable. It might be become a reality by 2010, likely will by 2015, and almost certainly will by 2020. When it arrives, it will come quickly.

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The advantage is transhumanism - try or die. Timeframe of disads/Ks doesn't matter so much.

 

I understand the timeframe of a K not mattering, but how does that affect a disad with a timeframe of a few months etc?

 

 

 

Drexler writes about how nanotech leads to grey goo and self-replicating nanobots which will consume everything and eat everyone on earth and then consume the universe, or something crazy like that. (It's run as a wipeout scenario too.) You can find some pretty good answers and more nanotech good, cut by me, in the 7wk Juniors backfile check answers file from this passed summer.

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Dude this aff seems pretty sweet. Timeframe, Anthro/techno.bad, spending and It's T (USFG) could be a major problem though. I like it, do you know if any camps are looking into putting this or anything like it out?

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Dude this aff seems pretty sweet. Timeframe, Anthro/techno.bad, spending and It's T (USFG) could be a major problem though. I like it, do you know if any camps are looking into putting this or anything like it out?

 

I doubt any of the mainstream camps will put this out but who knows, someone may decide to cut it. Camp files aren't decided upon until camp starts, at most camps the debaters decide what affs they want to cut/they cut whatever aff they want to on their own, depends on how advanced your lab is, some will expect you to cut whatever file you want on your own, and some will assign groups to work on files.

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Don't kill the messinger, but isn't your solvency evidince talking about cancer, which would not be one of the top killers in Africa?

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Don't kill the messinger, but isn't your solvency evidince talking about cancer, which would not be one of the top killers in Africa?

Finding nanotech solves X disease isn't too hard. There's a few authors that talk about how Nano solves every disease.

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yup...nanotech is pretty sweet

 

http://crnano.typepad.com/crnblog/2004/12/embedded_securi.html

 

All of these activities would be much more effective than in the past because of the integration of advanced technologies in a state controlled safe manner. Weather could be accurately predicted or controlled by the state for farmers, and GMO seeds could improve crop yields. Saw blades used in the wood shops could be diamondoid coated so they never dulled. Machine bearings would be perfectly sealed and last forever. The medical establishment could maintain perfect health for everyone. All disease organisms: harmful bacteria, viruses, and parasites, could be eliminated from the environment. Every child could get a good education and be assured of a safe and happy childhood free from extreme poverty, malnutrition, or abuse. All crime could easily be eliminated. Institutional, legal, or cultural discrimination based on race, religion, ethnic origin, or gender could be eliminated. Wars, plagues, and famines could be eliminated from the world for the first time in history.

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Wow, so if I run end strength I have to defend against heg bad??

That's generally how they roll. ;)

There are answers to this, just like everything... http://www.transhumanism.org/index.php/WTA/faq21/67/

I know, but it hadn't been mentioned in the thread yet. The answer on that page isn't very good anyway; I think if you're going to be running this aff, a lot of the debates will come down on the risk of grey goo and the "literature" errs neg.

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doesn't donna haraway advocate hella cyborgness? could her ev be used in a a kritikal advantage...medical nanotech could be defined as cyborgism. maybe i'm just straight trippin...

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That's generally how they roll. ;)

 

I know, but it hadn't been mentioned in the thread yet. The answer on that page isn't very good anyway; I think if you're going to be running this aff, a lot of the debates will come down on the risk of grey goo and the "literature" errs neg.

 

It has been answered, I said I cut answers to grey goo bad at camp this summer. You can find them in the 7wk juniors backfile check answers file. Drexler (author of grey goo) is an idiot, grey goo is a worse argument than spark (no offense to bishop guertin). Blue goo is also a stupid argument, but I cut those cards at camp too and are worth reading for an extra defensive warrant I suppose (if those cards even have warrants). Your best bet is to just read cards saying grey goo is bullshit and drexler is an idiot. And defending nanotech good is pretty easy to whoever said that its problematic. If any judge votes on "on the risk of grey goo and the "literature" errs neg" or whatever mybloodyvalentine said the affirmative team should quit debate because they suck and just lost on one of the worst warranted arguments ever. Besides the fact that a risk of grey goo shouldn't outweigh nanotech if you read good defense against it because nanotech solves everything, duh. I think I cut some cards saying it will cure every disease and make people immortal. The answers I cut to grey goo are better than Robinson's response to Lacan, the articles literally took apart every one of Drexler's warrants. Synergy, you should definitely check out the cards I cut, PM me if you need a copy. The card you posted it pretty good, but the stuff I cut, most of which can only be found in books and some random UMich databases, is better warranted, and there should be about 10 pages of answers ranging from blue goo to author indicts. Should lower your research burden on the nanotech good debate.

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I didn't see that you posted it earlier. There are other authors that write about gray goo besides Drexler - and even advocates of nanotech admit the possibility of gray goo.

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I didn't see that you posted it earlier. There are other authors that write about gray goo besides Drexler - and even advocates of nanotech admit the possibility of gray goo.

 

Go read the cards I cut. They answer the warrants behind Drexler's thesis of gray goo, the same one advocated by other authors. Most of the cards talk about gray goo in general so they aren't just Drexler stuff. I'm just saying that Drexler thought of the idea when he happened to be smoking a lot of weed and thinking about nanotechnology. And, come on, no sensible person actually thinks that grey goo is going to consume the universe, grey goo is just a bad wipeout scenario...really bad actually because I don't think a good wipeout scenario exists. But, hey, worst case scenario the aff can say turn-grey goo good, wipeout good. Anyways, when I said they answers grey goo warrants, here are some examples:

 

No Gray Goo – safeguards solve and waste heat means expansion would be slow and we could develop counter-measures

 

SELF-REPLICATING NANOBOTS ARE A SCIENFITIFC IMPOSSIBILITY—CONTRARY THOUGHTS IGNORE BASIC CHEMISTRY AND WOULD REQUIRE A LIVING ENZYME

 

GREY GOO IS NONSENSE – LIFE ITSELF PROVES

 

GREY GOO IS IMPOSSIBLE—DREXLER HAS CONCEDED

 

SELF-REPLICATING NANOBOTS ARE IMPOSSIBLE—CHEMISTRY PROVES

 

THE SELF-REPLICATING NANOBOTS THEORY WOULDN’T WORK AS DREXLER HAD CLAIMED

 

NANOBOTS WOULDN’T BE ABLE TO FIND ENOUGH ENERGY TO CREATE GREY GOO

 

SELF-REPLICATING NANOBOTS WOULD RELEASE WASTE HEART WHICH WOULD CHANGE THE ENVIORONMENT MAKING IT TO DIFFICULT TO CONTINUE REPLICATION

 

NANO HAS ALWAYS BEEN AROUND – NO REASON TO WORRY

 

If anyone wants full articles I think have them on my computer still.

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